Amtrak: The History and Politics of a National Railroad

By David C. Nice | Go to book overview

efforts have taken many forms, from improvements in food quality and onboard movies to aggressive advertising, route modifications, and coordinated bus service. 30 The results have been striking: total passenger miles rose from 3.04 billion to 6.27 billion in 1991, and passenger miles per train mile rose from 117 in 1972 to 188 in 1989, followed by a slight decline. 31 By increasing passenger volume, these efforts have helped improve the system's financial performance.


Notes
1.
For examples, see Improving Productivity in State and Local Government ( New York: Committee for Economic Development, 1976); William Martin, Motivation and Productivity in Public Sector Human Organizations ( New York: Quorum, 1988); Elaine Morley, A Practitioner's Guide to Public Sector Productivity Improvement ( New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1986).
2.
George Downs and Patrick Larkey, The Questfor Government Efficiency ( Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986).
3.
Walter Balk, Improving Government Productivity ( Beverly Hills: Sage, 1975), 5; Barry Bozeman, Public Management and Policy Analysis ( New York: St. Martin's, 1979), 359; Downs and Larkey, 9-11; Peter Drucker, Management ( New York: Harper and Row, 1973), 67-68, 111; Nancy Hayward and George Kuper, "The National Economy and Productivity in Government", Public Administration Review 38 ( 1978): 2; Morley, 3.
4.
Balk, 7-12; Downs and Larkey, 6-8; Harry Hatry, "The Status of Productivity Measurement in the Public Sector", Public Administration Review 38 ( 1978): 28; Robert Pursely and Neil Snortland, Managing Government Organizations (North Scituate, MA: Duxbury, 1980), 442.
5.
Improving Productivity, 15-16; Pursely and Snortland, 453-454.
6.
Drucker, 29, 68-71, 112-113.
7.
See Federal Subsidies for Rail Passenger Service: An Assessment of Amtrak ( Washington, DC: Congressional Budget Office, 1982); Francis Mulvey, "Amtrak: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis", Transportation Research 13A ( 1979): 329-344.
8.
Annual Report ( Washington, DC: National Railroad Passenger Corporation, 1988), 3-4; Annual Report ( Washington, DC: National Railroad Passenger Corporation, 1994), 8-10, 19-27.
9.
Robert Bish and Vincent Ostrom, Understanding Urban Government ( Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1973), 29-31; Harold Gortner, Administration in the Public Sector, 2nd ed. ( New York: Wiley, 1981), 149; Improving Productivity, 22, 61-62.
10.
Martin Farris and Forrest Harding, Passenger Transportation ( Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1976), 71.
11.
Harold Gortner, Julianne Mahler, and Jeanne Nicholson, Organization Theory ( Chicago: Dorsey, 1987), 30.
12.
See Chapter 2; see also David Nice, "Stability of the Amtrak System", Transportation Quarterly 43 ( 1989): 566-568.
13.
For overviews, see Downs and Larkey, chs. 4, 6; Martin, chs. 4-10; Morley, chs. 8-13.
14.
John Stover, The Life and Decline of the American Railroad ( New York: Oxford, 1970), 218.

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Amtrak: The History and Politics of a National Railroad
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • 1 - Creating Amtrak 1
  • Notes 12
  • 2 - Development: Building the System 15
  • Notes 28
  • 3 - Distribution: Who Gets Service? 31
  • Notes 42
  • 4 - The States: Reluctant Partners? 47
  • Notes 58
  • 5 - International Amtrak 61
  • Notes 69
  • 6 - Bringing Passengers on Board 71
  • Notes 78
  • 7 - The Balance Sheet 81
  • Notes 91
  • 8 - Amtrak: Worth the Cost? 93
  • Notes 103
  • Bibliography 107
  • Index 115
  • About the Book 119
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