This study could not have been done without the aid of many people, most of whom work in manuscript repositories and libraries throughout the eastern United States. I regret that I cannot list all the names of those who have provided assistance.
I must first acknowledge the kind help of several staff members at the Gettysburg National Military Park. They are Kathleen Georg Harrison, D. Scott Hartwig, Robert Prosperi, Paul M. Shevchuk, Karen L. Finley, and Eric A. Campbell. They helped me use the park's library and files and were the source of much useful information. More than that, they made me feel as though I was still one of the park's family.
It would be very difficult to write anything of substance about the Army of Northern Virginia without the help and advice of my friend Robert K. Krick, the chief historian at Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park. Bob went out of his way to make sure that I had access to useful Confederate sources in his custody and provided encouragement and good advice. I owe him a great deal. I am indebted also to his son, Robert E. L. Krick, of the Richmond National Battlefield Park, who furnished me with copies of unpublished Confederate reports that I would have otherwise missed.
My son, Donald C. Pfanz, a National Park Service historian at Fredericksburg and an authority on Gen. Richard S. Ewell, was of help in many ways. He read some of the chapters, checked sources for me, and most of all shared his views on Ewell and provided me with information on him and some of his comrades that I might have overlooked.
I am indebted also to two outstanding archivist-historians known to every serious scholar in the field of military history: Michael P. Musick at the National Archives and Richard J. Sommers at the U.S. Army Military History Institute at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania. Both have been of help to me on this project and in the past. Pamela Cheney, in Dr. Sommers's office, assisted me there during my most recent visits.
Many of the illustrations used also came from the Military History Institute. Michael J. Winey, as always, received me cordially there and helped me find what I needed. James Enos copied the photographs obtained at Carlisle for me, while an old friend, Walter Lane, copied those at Gettysburg.