Gettysburg--Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill

By Harry W. Pfanz | Go to book overview

20
EPILOGUE

The battle was all but over. General Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia would return to Virginia. In retrospect, Lee wrote, "The severe loss sustained by the army and the reduction of its ammunition, rendered another attempt to dislodge the enemy inadvisable, and it was, therefore, determined to withdraw." So, on the night of 3 July, at Lee's orders, General Longstreet abandoned his hard-fought gains on the Confederate right and posted Hood's and McLaws's divisions in defensive positions on the extension of Seminary Ridge from which he had launched his attacks on 2 and 3 July. Hill's corps remained in the center, and Ewell ordered his corps to leave its positions in front of Cemetery Hill and Culp's Hill and in Gettysburg, which once had been deemed so vital to hold, and deploy on the army's left on Seminary Ridge near the Chambersburg Pike. The Confederates would remain on the ridge for only another day; on 4 July Lee would start a wagon train of wounded back to the Potomac crossings south of Hagerstown, and Early's division, the rear guard of the army, would leave the Gettysburg area late in the morning on 5 July. 1

In accordance with the orders of Lee and Ewell, Johnson's division abandoned its bridgehead west of Rock Creek sometime after 10:00 P.M. on 3 July and marched via "the rear" of the town to Seminary Ridge. Early's division left its position about 2:00 A.M. after Johnson's division had cleared the area to its left, and Rodes's division deployed on the ridge astride the railroad bed. Although Ewell's corps had to leave some of its wounded behind, and there were stragglers enough, the movement came off in a quiet and orderly way that did not attract the attention of the Union

-365-

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Gettysburg--Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page ii
  • Contents vii
  • Maps ix
  • Illustrations xi
  • Preface xv
  • Acknowledgments xvii
  • 1 - The Generals and Their Armies 1
  • 2 - The Only Position 15
  • 3 - Ewell and Howard Collide 31
  • 4 - Retreat to Cemetery Hill 45
  • 5 - The Rebels Take the Town 59
  • 6 - Ewell Hesitates 71
  • 7 - Slocum and Hancock Reach the Field 88
  • 8 - Getting Ready for the Fight 106
  • 9 - Skirmishers, Sharpshooters, and Civilians 129
  • 10 - Brinkerhoff's Ridge 153
  • 11 - The Artillery, 2 July 168
  • 12 - Blunder on the Right 190
  • 13 - Johnson Attacks! 205
  • 14 - Early Attacks Cemetery Hill 235
  • 15 - Cemetery Hill- the Repulse 263
  • 16 - Culp's Hill- Johnson's Assault, 3 July 284
  • 17 - The Last Attacks 310
  • 18 - Counterattacks near Spangler's Spring 328
  • 19 - 3 July, Mostly Afternoon 353
  • 20 - Epilogue 365
  • Appendix A - Spangler's Spring 377
  • Appendix B - Two Controversies 379
  • Appendix C - Order of Battle: Army of the Potomac and Army of Northern Virginia, 1-3 July 1863 383
  • Notes 407
  • Bibliography 471
  • Index 489
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