A bibliography of sources cited appears below. It includes a variety of manuscripts and published items. Almost all of the latter are personal accounts of the battle or unit histories, which might be considered as primary sources.
One primary source is particularly noteworthy. It is the John B. Bachelder Papers, the originals of which are at the New Hampshire Historical Society. They include scores of letters written by participants in the battle to Bachelder when he was making his various maps of the battlefield and when he was the historian for the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association.
Most historians of the battle of Gettysburg mourn the lack of good Confederate accounts. Gen. Jubal A. Early was exceptional in that he wrote extensively of some aspects of the battle. However, in consulting Early's writings it must be remembered that he was often quite partisan.
William W. Goldsborough and some other members of the 1st Maryland Battalion, C.S.A., were also exceptions. One of the Maryland sources is "Washington Hands's Civil War Notebook," the original of which is on file at the library of the University of Virginia. Hands was a corporal in the 1st Maryland Regiment and a private in the Baltimore Light Artillery. I have not read all of Hands's notebook, which is voluminous, but I believe that his Gettysburg section is either copied from Goldsborough's writings or strongly influenced by them. Therefore, I have considered it to be another Goldsborough source.
I have not listed newspapers separately. Most, if not all, newspaper items used identify authors, and it seems unnecessary to list the newspapers in a separate category. One newspaper merits special mention. It is the National Tribune, a Washington, D.C., weekly printed for Union veterans. It is rich in Union source materials, but each must be evaluated for its own accuracy.
My most valuable source, of course, was The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, series 1, volumes 27 and 51.
I would also like to call particular attention to the reference books that have been most helpful. They are listed below under their compilers' names. I am especially grateful to Mark M. Boatner III, William F. Howard, Robert K. Krick, Edmund J. Raus, Richard A. Sauers, Stewart Sifakis, Jon L. Wakelyn, and Ezra J. Warner. I must also make special mention of William A. Frassanito, whose photographic study provides unique help.
The battlefield, like the Official Records, is an indispensable source that any writer about battles must try to know and appreciate. Unfortunately, however, terrain changes with the passage of time. The important area of the field north, northeast, and northwest of Cemetery Hill has been developed and diminished. Although Culp's Hill itself has not been developed, large areas of its vital historic open spaces have been blanketed with trees and brush so that they are hard