International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

amounted to 15 percent of federal expenditures, the third largest single category in the federal budget, trailing only Social Security (22 percent) and defense (18 percent) ( OMB 1996, p. 7). In the 1960s and 1970s net interest payments consumed about 7 percent of federal spending, less than half of current levels. While the federal government can afford this level of deficit, some observers worry that this level of interest payment has shifted money away from programs and frozen the will of government and its ability to come up with progressive policies and carry them out; they suggest that the U.S. is beginning to resemble developing countries where citizens labor to pay for past consumption and serve their creditors rather than invest in their future and the futures of their children. Others argue that the deficit debate has led to a much needed reexamination of the appropriate role and size of government in society.

JERRY MCCAFFERY


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Budget of the U.S. Government, FY 1997: Historical Trends. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Mufson, Steven, 1991. "The Thing That Wouldn't Die". The Washington Post National Weekly Edition (February 11-17) 6.

Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 1995. A Citizen's Guide to the Federal Budget. FY 1996. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Wildavsky Aaron, 1988. The New Politics of the Budgetary Process. Boston: Scott, Foresman and Co.

DEINSTITUTIONALIZATION. The policy and practice of transferring incarcerated people from large, dense, homogeneous, restrictive environments to less restrictive, less crowded, heterogeneous environments. Outpatient mental health care and intermediate sentencing represent deinstitutionalization in the fields of mental health and criminal justice.

Institutionalization by the state was a nineteenthcentury reform to care for society's outcasts, who had previously been cared for at home, by local governments, or not at all. The ninteenth-century vision of progress motivated reformers to assemble into a modern facility those people who exhibited behaviors that were unwanted of feared. Juveniles and adults who break the law, the mentally ill, the mentally retarded, and the aged are the categories of people usually institutionalized. Institutionalization was justified as a humane practice in caring for people who are unable or unwilling to conduct themselves in a societally approved manner, and whose roaming freely constitutes a risk to themselves or others. "Penitents" (hence the term "penitentiary") were to be given time alone, to reflect on and to improve their behavior.

Institutionalization is currently being described as an ineffective and/or inefficient way to deal with people who have difficulty caring for themselves or who exhibit socially inappropriate behavior. Issues of institutionalization versus deinstitutionalization face citizens and governments of all Western nations. Since criminal and statutory offenders differ from the mentally disabled and aged, these two categories will be discussed separately.


The Mentally Ill, the Mentally Retarded, and the Aged

According to the supporters of institutionalization, an isolated, supportive environment protects the mentally ill, mentally retarded, and the aged from abuse or neglect, and provides these people with caring, professional treatment. Perhaps some can be cured. Mental health and retardation institutions grew to meet societal demand, and as a result, people who were unruly, obstinate, or addicted to drugs and alcohol found themselves committed to these institutions, thereby turning these intended havens for rest and rehabilitation into the dumping ground for society's unwanted.

A large client population, coupled with deteriorating budgets to support caring and treatment, meant that harried mental health workers could do little more than act as warehouse custodians. By the 1960s cries for change came from across the ideological spectrum. Critics such as psychiatrist R. D. Laing ( 1969) and sociologist Erving Goffman ( 1961) considered incarceration inhumane. Institutionalization labeled the individual with a stigma, which the individual internalized into a self-concept, thereby inhibiting intellectual and emotional growth, and causing the client to become psychologically trapped in a dependency relationship with powerful caregivers. Incarcerated clients, kept in a restrained and dependent condition, were coerced to display acquiescent behavior to ease the task of the custodians. For critics such as Goffman and Laing, the institution was the problem, and the first step for improving mental health care was to close these places of confinement and to substitute an environment where the patient could gain self-respect and be challenged to grow.

Cost-conscious legislators attacked from a different direction, criticizing institutions as inefficient, a waste of taxpayers' money. The discovery (or rediscovery) of psychotropic drugs in the 1950s demonstrated that mood shifts and violent outbursts could be minimized by medication, so patients were less likely to be a danger to themselves or others, which undercut one argument for longterm incarceration. After undergoing crisis intervention and becoming stabilized on medication, the client could live with family, in a group home, or alone, without the need of highly trained professionals in attendance 24 hours daily. A professional case manager could serve as liaison and advocate for the client, connecting the client with the appropriate medical or social service. With emotional outbursts controlled through drug therapy, the mentally ill could not be readily distinguished from "normal" people. Community care would eliminate the labeling stigma,

-654-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Editorial Board *
  • Title Page *
  • D 627
  • Bibliography 627
  • Bibliography 630
  • Bibliography 631
  • Bibliography 633
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 639
  • Bibliography 643
  • Bibliography 645
  • Bibliography 647
  • Bibliography 651
  • Bibliography 654
  • Bibliography 656
  • Bibliography 662
  • Bibliography 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • Bibliography 669
  • Bibliography 674
  • Bibliography 676
  • Bibliography 677
  • Bibliography 679
  • Bibliography 682
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 687
  • Bibliography 689
  • Bibliography 690
  • Bibliography 692
  • Bibliography 694
  • Bibliography 695
  • Bibliography 700
  • Bibliography 701
  • Bibliography 704
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 707
  • Bibliography 708
  • Bibliography 711
  • Bibliography 714
  • Bibliography 720
  • Bibliography 723
  • Bibliography 728
  • Bibliography 728
  • E 729
  • Bibliography 730
  • Bibliography 734
  • Bibliography 736
  • Bibliography 738
  • Bibliography 741
  • Bibliography 745
  • Bibliography 746
  • Bibliography 747
  • Bibliography 752
  • Bibliography 753
  • Bibliography 756
  • Bibliography 763
  • Bibliography 764
  • Bibliography 768
  • Bibliography 772
  • Bibliography 773
  • Bibliography 777
  • Bibliography 785
  • Bibliography 789
  • Bibliography 790
  • Bibliography 793
  • Bibliography 795
  • Bibliography 802
  • Bibliography 803
  • Bibliography 806
  • Bibliography 808
  • Bibliography 818
  • Bibliography 822
  • Bibliography 824
  • Bibliography 825
  • Bibliography 827
  • Bibliography 832
  • Bibliography 837
  • Bibliography 841
  • Bibliography 844
  • Bibliography 852
  • F 853
  • Bibliography 854
  • Bibliography 857
  • Bibliography 861
  • Bibliography 862
  • Bibliography 865
  • References 875
  • Bibliography 881
  • Bibliography 883
  • Bibliography 884
  • Bibliography 887
  • Bibliography 891
  • Bibliography 895
  • Bibliography 898
  • Bibliography 901
  • Bibliography 905
  • Bibliography 906
  • Bibliography 913
  • Bibliography 914
  • Bibliography 915
  • Bibliography 917
  • Bibliography 921
  • Bibliography 922
  • Bibliography 923
  • Bibliography 927
  • Bibliography 928
  • Bibliography 935
  • Bibliography 938
  • Bibliography 941
  • Bibliography 944
  • Bibliography 945
  • Bibliography 947
  • Bibliography 949
  • Bibliography 950
  • Bibliography 952
  • Bibliography 957
  • Bibliography 960
  • G 961
  • Bibliography 962
  • Bibliography 964
  • Bibliography 968
  • Bibliography 972
  • Bibliography 973
  • Bibliography 979
  • Bibliography 982
  • Bibliography 983
  • Bibliography 984
  • Bibliography 989
  • Bibliography 990
  • Bibliography 993
  • Bibliography 996
  • Bibliography 998
  • Bibliography 1002
  • Bibliography 1006
  • Bibliography 1007
  • Bibliography 1010
  • Bibliography 1014
  • Bibliography 1017
  • Bibliography 1018
  • Bibliography 1019
  • Bibliography 1023
  • Bibliography 1025
  • Bibliography 1030
  • Bibliography 1031
  • Bibliography 1035
  • H 1037
  • Bibliography 1039
  • Bibliograhy 1042
  • Bibliography 1046
  • Bibliography 1053
  • Bibliography 1058
  • Bibliography 1059
  • Bibliography 1061
  • Bibliography 1065
  • Bibliography 1069
  • Bibliography 1071
  • Bibliography 1072
  • Bibliography 1077
  • Bibliography 1078
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1082
  • I 1083
  • Bibliography 1086
  • Bibliography 1087
  • Bibliography 1091
  • Bibliography 1093
  • Bibliography 1097
  • Bibliography 1098
  • Bibliography 1100
  • Bibliography 1101
  • Bibliography 1105
  • Bibliography 1109
  • Bibliography 1110
  • Bibliography 1115
  • Bibliography 1120
  • Bibliography 1126
  • Bibliography 1129
  • Bibliography 1130
  • Bibliography 1133
  • Bibliography 1136
  • Bibliography 1138
  • Bibliography 1139
  • Bibliography 1141
  • Bibliography 1144
  • Bibliography 1145
  • Bibliography 1151
  • Bibliography 1154
  • Bibliography 1156
  • Bibliography 1159
  • Bibliography 1161
  • Bibliography 1167
  • Bibliography 1181
  • Bibliography 1191
  • Bibliography 1196
  • Bibliography 1198
  • Bibliography 1200
  • Bibliography 1201
  • J 1207
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1219
  • Bibliography 1220
  • Bibliography 1222
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1228
  • Bibliography 1233
  • Bibliography 1236
  • Bibliography 1238
  • K 1239
  • Bibliography 1240
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 1240

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.