abuse. Loss of revenues from unpaid parking tickets are a drain on city budgets. Broken rental and lease agreements with landlords adversely affect local housing stocks. The breakdown of the international system today (in terms of diplomatic practices) can be attributed to growing diversity in the international system. States in the international system which have a non-Western legal system and whose populations hold non-Western ethical and belief systems may tend to disregard the Westphalian legacy as they become more active on the global scene.
In order for diplomacy to succeed, all interested parties must speak the same language and agree on fundamental principles. A worrisome problem facing the international community today is the seeming unwillingness of some members of the international community to adopt the prevailing terminology and norms of diplomacy as set forth in the 1961 Vienna Convention. This stance renders it more difficult to achieve harmonization of policies among states in wide-ranging issue areas. One of the key distinguishing characteristics of the quality of life issue areas in which much diplomatic activity is currently occurring is that problems cannot be solved by states unilaterally. Joint efforts are required to reduce environmental degradation, improve trading patterns, and cope with the dislocation of immigrants, for example. The willful disregard by renegade states of the safeguards built into current practices to protect diplomatic personnel has explosive potential. If not defused, it can lead to a staggering breakdown in international diplomacy.
PERNILLA M. NEAL
Callières, François de, 1983. The Art of Diplomacy. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers.
Gore-Booth, Lord, ed., 1979. Satow's Guide to Diplomatic Practice. 5th ed. London: Longman.
Nicolson, Harold G., 1964. Diplomacy. 3rd ed. London: Oxford University Press.
DIRECTIVE. A form of secondary legislation in the European Union. According to Article 189 of the treaty establishing the European Economic Community signed in Rome in 1957, "a directive shall be binding, as to the result to be achieved, upon each Member State to which it is addressed, but shall leave to the national authorities the choice of form and methods."
Unlike regulations, directives are not binding in their entirety but only as to the result to be achieved. A directive, which is normally though not necessarily addressed to all member states, requires national measures to bring it into effect at national level. Thus directives are general in nature and lay down policy guidelines and principles. The choice of means of achieving the end set out in the directive is left to the discretion of national authorities, which introduce measures as appropriate given their different legislative and constitutional systems. Directives usually specify a deadline by which the objective is to be achieved. The European Commission is notified by national authorities of the national implementing measures put in place.
Where member states fail to comply with directives by the specified dates, proceedings may be initiated against them and they may ultimately be arraigned in front of the Court of Justice. Moreover, the Court has ruled that, in certain cases, directives may be directly applicable -- for example, where there has been an undue delay in complying with directives, or where national implementing measures fail to meet adequately the objective as set out in the directive. Since the European Union treaty, which was signed in Maastricht in February 1992 and came into effect in November 1993, the Court is entitled to impose fines on those authorities that come before it for the same offense twice. For the most part directives are adopted by the Council of Ministers; however, the European Union Treaty of 1992 amended article 189 to involve the European Parliament more closely in the adoption of legislation in particular policy areas. Examples of directives include Council Directive 95/5/EC of February 27, 1995, amending Directive 92/120/EEC on the conditions for granting temporary and limited derogation's from specific European Community health rules on the production and marketing of certain products of animal origin; Directive 95/1/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of February 2, 1995, on the maximum design speed, maximum torque and maximum net engine power of two- or three-wheel motor vehicles; and European Parliament and Council Directive No 95/2/EC of February 20, 1995, on food additives other than colors and sweeteners.
Directives are known as recommendations under the Paris Treaty signed in 1951, which established the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952.
MARGARET MARY MALONE
Hartley, T. C., 1989. The Foundations of European Community Law. 2d ed. London: Clarendon Press.
Lasok, D. and J. W. Bridge, 1987. Law and Institutions of the European Communities. 4th ed. London: Butterworths.
Nugent, Neill, 1991. The Government and Politics of the European Community. 2d ed. London: MacMillan.
Parry, Anthony and James Dinnage, 1981. EEC Law. 2d ed. London: Sweet and Maxwell.
Wyatt, D. and A. Dashwood, 1987. The Substantive Law of the EC, 2d ed. London: Sweet and Maxwell.
DISCIPLINE. Any action on the part of management that is intended to encourage compliance with organizational rules and performance standards. Two broad types of discipline are present in almost all organizations, preventive and corrective. Preventive discipline is the more obscure form, and relates to management's efforts to deter