things. As the prominent New York educator Dr. John Theobald remarked during New York City's fiscal crisis of the 1970s: "If necessity is the mother of invention, downsizing can be the mother of innovation."
GARY D. HELFAND
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DROR, YEHEZKEL (b. 1928). The Israeli policy scientist, strategic planner and government expert, wellknown for his ideas on improving policymaking and upgrading capacities to govern. By 1995 Dror had written 15 books, eight of them in English, and nearly 80 articles for journals dealing with public administration, policy studies, and governance.
Yehezkel Dror was born in Vienna, Austria, and moved with his family to Palestine in 1928. He studied political science, sociology, and law at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and received a lawyer's license, but preferred to continue his studies at Harvard University in philosophy of law, legislation, and planning, receiving the coveted doctorate in judicial studies (SJD).
He is married to Rachel Elboim-Dror, a professor at the Hebrew University and a well-known scholar in the history of education, policy and management, and culture and the history of ideas. They have three sons.
To understand Dror's work, the interaction between five main careers of his must be understood.
He is an academician who served as professor of political science and Wolfson Chair professor of public administration at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem for 40 years, from 1953 to 1992, when he retired from active university teaching. As an academician he was a distinguished guest professor and academic visitor at many universities abroad, such as the University of California at Berkeley, the London School of Economics and Political Science, and Edinburgh University. He also spent years at various academic centers and institutes of advanced studies, including the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto; the Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington, D.C.; the Center for Advanced Study, Berlin; and the Russell Sage Foundation, New York.
However, this "standard" academic part of his life program is accompanied by four other main lines of activity: close involvement in Israeli policymaking and politics; policy advisory tasks in more than 30 countries; mentoring of top decisionmakers and their advisors in more than 25 countries; and work on global issues.
Already as a high school student, Dror was active in Israeli politics. While serving as a young officer at the Israeli General Staff during the War of Independence (1947 1949), he started his experiences as a policy planner. As a university student, he headed the Israeli Student Association. Highlights of his involvement in Israeli policymaking and politics include: two years as full-time senior policy analysis and policy planning adviser of the Israel Ministry of Defense; one year as Chief Scientist of the Israeli Labor Party; chairperson and member of many public government commissions that addressed subjects including civil service reforms, health services, and government corporations; candidate for the Knesset (the Israeli Parliament); adviser to the Prime Minister's Office and the Cabinet Secretariat; and more.
These "hands-on" involvements were accompanied by extensive writings on Israeli policy issues, including a sixvolume corpus of books of which four were published by 1995, dealing with the dynamics of Israel, state-building, grand strategic issues, and refounding of Zionism.
Another main stand of Dror's work involves policy advisory activities in other countries. This included extensive work at major think tanks, such as two years at the RAND Corporation in California (as the first non-American serving as a senior RAND staff member); two years with the European Institute of Public Administration in Maastricht, working on European Union issues; and shorter periods at the Science Center, Berlin, and the Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Another main part of his policy advisory activities included advising multinational and international organizations, including the United Nations, the United Nations Development Program, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Bank, and more. The third component of his advisory activities included missions to more than 30 countries all around the world, to advise them on policymaking and governance redesign. Some work with multinational corporations provided an additional "laboratory" for Dror's ideas.