International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

persing," the middle classes. Contractarian and liberal apologists for economic rationalism may argue that social equality is a contestable policy norm, but such defenses have tended to lose momentum in the face of increasing evidence that these public policies have also caused increasing unemployment, a decline in the dignity and security of work, environmental degradation, and, rather more indirectly, urban decay, rising crime, alienation, and drug dependency, and new forms of patriarchy. Communitarian critics of economic rationalism ( Sandel 1984, Etzioni 1994) in North America now have much in common with Continental social-theoretical arguments ( Habermas 1975, 1984, 1987) that economic rationalist policies are inimical to identity, reciprocal obligation, social cohesion, and good government and, further, that they also undermine the social constructions of both time and trust necessary for the reproduction of society and for continuing productive economic development.

MICHAEL PUSEY


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Buchanan, J., 1977. Freedom in Constitutional Contract. College Station: Texas A & M University Press.

Commission on Graduate Education in Economics (COGEE) Report, 1991. Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 29:1035- 1053

Dworkin, R., 1978. "Liberalism". In Stuart Hampshire, ed., Public and Private Morality, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press

Etzioni, Amitai., 1994. The Spirit of Community

Habermas, J., 1984, 1987. The Theory of Communicative Action, trans. Thomas McCarthy, 2 vols. Boston: Beacon Press

--, 1975. Legitimation Crisis, trans. Thomas McCarthy Boston: Beacon Press

Harcourt, G., 1982. Social Science Imperialists. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul

Hayek, Friedrich A., 1960. The Constitution of Liberty. Chicago: Chicago Press

Heilbroner, R., 1988. Behind the Veil Economics. New York: W.W. Norton & Co

Klamer A., D. McCloskey and R. Solow, eds., 1988. The Consequences of Economic Rhetoric. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press

McCloskey, D., 1983. "The Rhetoric of Economics". Journal of Economic Literature, vol 22 (June) 481-517

Nozic, R., 1974. Anarchy, State and Utopia. New York: Basic Books

Ormerod, P., 1994. The Death of Economics. London: Faber & Faber

Pusey, M.; 1991 Economic Rationalism in Canberra. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press

Rawls, J., 1971. A Theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University

Rosenblum, N., ed., 1989. Liberalism and the Moral Life Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Sandel, M., ed., 1984, Liberalism and Its Critics. New York: University Press

Sen, A., 1987. The Standard Living. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press

--, 1989. On Ethics and Economics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell

Wilenski, H., G. Luebbert, S. Hann, and A. Jamieson, 1985 Comparative Social Policy: Theories, Methods, Findings, Research Monograph Series #62. Berkeley: Institute of International Studies, University of California-Berkeley.

ECONOMIC WARFARE. The imposition by a nation or alliance in a conflict of a range of economic and military activities designed either to reduce the opponent's capacity to wage and sustain war, or to preserve a capacity to prevail in the conflict, or both. More narrowly, it is the aggressive use of the means of production and trade to achieve national objectives. It is an odd phrase in that war is itself an economic activity. When Norman Angell published his The War of Illusions ( 1910) just before the onslaught of World War I, he was doing no more than pointing out that the economic consequences of a European general war would be so catastrophic as to render it an irrational act for any leader to contemplate. The only mistake in his analysis was the assumption that leaders behave rationally and would therefore avoid such a conflict at all costs. More generally, economic warfare has a variety of levels of intensity, ranging from freezing an enemy's assets and confiscating its property during a formally declared war to using secret methods to destabilize an opponent's economy during a cold war.

Economic warfare is a term of relatively recent coinage; the establishment during World War II of the British Ministry of Economic Warfare helped to legitimize the term. In reality, all wars have an economic component. This is evident in the earliest theories of air power. The whole point of delivering munitions from the air on enemy territory was to deplete the war-making potential of the opposing ground and naval forces. When the British Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, said, "The bomber will always get through," he was demonstrating the vulnerability to attack of armaments factories, supply lines, and other elements of military capability and its supporting structures as decisive factors in a major war. For much of World War II, the rationale for bombing German cities was that large concentrations of people coincided with economic activity. Damage that, it was argued, and the war effort of the adversary must suffer. Conversely, not attacking such economic centers-perhaps out of respect for the Thomist Just War tradition that holds that civilians must be left free from military dangers-was self-defeating in modern warfare.

Much of the economic result of aerial bombing was disappointing, from the perspective of all belligerents in World War II. Machine tools for such vital components as ball bearings, for example, were found to be almost indestructible. All that was necessary after an air raid was to create temporary shelter and rig a generator, and production could begin again with relatively little delay. German pro-

-736-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Editorial Board *
  • Title Page *
  • D 627
  • Bibliography 627
  • Bibliography 630
  • Bibliography 631
  • Bibliography 633
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 639
  • Bibliography 643
  • Bibliography 645
  • Bibliography 647
  • Bibliography 651
  • Bibliography 654
  • Bibliography 656
  • Bibliography 662
  • Bibliography 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • Bibliography 669
  • Bibliography 674
  • Bibliography 676
  • Bibliography 677
  • Bibliography 679
  • Bibliography 682
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 687
  • Bibliography 689
  • Bibliography 690
  • Bibliography 692
  • Bibliography 694
  • Bibliography 695
  • Bibliography 700
  • Bibliography 701
  • Bibliography 704
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 707
  • Bibliography 708
  • Bibliography 711
  • Bibliography 714
  • Bibliography 720
  • Bibliography 723
  • Bibliography 728
  • Bibliography 728
  • E 729
  • Bibliography 730
  • Bibliography 734
  • Bibliography 736
  • Bibliography 738
  • Bibliography 741
  • Bibliography 745
  • Bibliography 746
  • Bibliography 747
  • Bibliography 752
  • Bibliography 753
  • Bibliography 756
  • Bibliography 763
  • Bibliography 764
  • Bibliography 768
  • Bibliography 772
  • Bibliography 773
  • Bibliography 777
  • Bibliography 785
  • Bibliography 789
  • Bibliography 790
  • Bibliography 793
  • Bibliography 795
  • Bibliography 802
  • Bibliography 803
  • Bibliography 806
  • Bibliography 808
  • Bibliography 818
  • Bibliography 822
  • Bibliography 824
  • Bibliography 825
  • Bibliography 827
  • Bibliography 832
  • Bibliography 837
  • Bibliography 841
  • Bibliography 844
  • Bibliography 852
  • F 853
  • Bibliography 854
  • Bibliography 857
  • Bibliography 861
  • Bibliography 862
  • Bibliography 865
  • References 875
  • Bibliography 881
  • Bibliography 883
  • Bibliography 884
  • Bibliography 887
  • Bibliography 891
  • Bibliography 895
  • Bibliography 898
  • Bibliography 901
  • Bibliography 905
  • Bibliography 906
  • Bibliography 913
  • Bibliography 914
  • Bibliography 915
  • Bibliography 917
  • Bibliography 921
  • Bibliography 922
  • Bibliography 923
  • Bibliography 927
  • Bibliography 928
  • Bibliography 935
  • Bibliography 938
  • Bibliography 941
  • Bibliography 944
  • Bibliography 945
  • Bibliography 947
  • Bibliography 949
  • Bibliography 950
  • Bibliography 952
  • Bibliography 957
  • Bibliography 960
  • G 961
  • Bibliography 962
  • Bibliography 964
  • Bibliography 968
  • Bibliography 972
  • Bibliography 973
  • Bibliography 979
  • Bibliography 982
  • Bibliography 983
  • Bibliography 984
  • Bibliography 989
  • Bibliography 990
  • Bibliography 993
  • Bibliography 996
  • Bibliography 998
  • Bibliography 1002
  • Bibliography 1006
  • Bibliography 1007
  • Bibliography 1010
  • Bibliography 1014
  • Bibliography 1017
  • Bibliography 1018
  • Bibliography 1019
  • Bibliography 1023
  • Bibliography 1025
  • Bibliography 1030
  • Bibliography 1031
  • Bibliography 1035
  • H 1037
  • Bibliography 1039
  • Bibliograhy 1042
  • Bibliography 1046
  • Bibliography 1053
  • Bibliography 1058
  • Bibliography 1059
  • Bibliography 1061
  • Bibliography 1065
  • Bibliography 1069
  • Bibliography 1071
  • Bibliography 1072
  • Bibliography 1077
  • Bibliography 1078
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1082
  • I 1083
  • Bibliography 1086
  • Bibliography 1087
  • Bibliography 1091
  • Bibliography 1093
  • Bibliography 1097
  • Bibliography 1098
  • Bibliography 1100
  • Bibliography 1101
  • Bibliography 1105
  • Bibliography 1109
  • Bibliography 1110
  • Bibliography 1115
  • Bibliography 1120
  • Bibliography 1126
  • Bibliography 1129
  • Bibliography 1130
  • Bibliography 1133
  • Bibliography 1136
  • Bibliography 1138
  • Bibliography 1139
  • Bibliography 1141
  • Bibliography 1144
  • Bibliography 1145
  • Bibliography 1151
  • Bibliography 1154
  • Bibliography 1156
  • Bibliography 1159
  • Bibliography 1161
  • Bibliography 1167
  • Bibliography 1181
  • Bibliography 1191
  • Bibliography 1196
  • Bibliography 1198
  • Bibliography 1200
  • Bibliography 1201
  • J 1207
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1219
  • Bibliography 1220
  • Bibliography 1222
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1228
  • Bibliography 1233
  • Bibliography 1236
  • Bibliography 1238
  • K 1239
  • Bibliography 1240
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 1240

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.