International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

The Future of Emergency Management

The field of emergency management is undergoing great change in the 1990s. As an issue, emergency management is finding greater public support. The principal reason for the increased public and government interest is the unusual number of recent catastrophes. Major earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, droughts, nuclear accidents, wars, floods, and other disasters are frequent occurrences and television coverage is compelling. The international media provided graphic accounts of the devastating hundred-year floods in northern Europe and the Kobe earthquake in Japan. Less dramatic, but no less devastating, disasters such as the persistent droughts in Africa and Australia may be less familiar to people outside of the regions, but their effects are broadly felt. The wars that have caused famine, displacement and homelessness, disease, and devastation of populations have become all too familiar to the international community. Millions have died and many more have been physically and psychologically injured. The economic impact of the disasters has been staggering and some impacts have yet to be fully realized. The health costs of the nuclear disaster at Chernobyl, for example, will likely be paid by generations of Ukrainians. While the negative effects of the 1989Exxon Valdez oil spill on Prince William Sound are touted as resolved, the long-term impact on that fragile environment remains. The human and economic costs of disaster are addressed internationally through the activities of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, but concerns have been raised about the slow adoption of adequate mitigation programs ( National Research Council 1994).

While scientists improve their capabilities to predict earthquakes, the frequency and intensities of cyclones (hurricanes and typhoons), and the development of droughts and floods, other natural phenomena increase the risks to society. Terrorist attacks, including bombing of aircraft in flight and the World Trade Center in New York City, have the potential to be as destructive as natural and technological disasters. Bombings of oil and gas pipelines, mines, oil rigs, gas storage facilities, dams, and transportation facilities can be catastrophic in terms of property damage and the loss of human life. Natural hazards, too, are becoming more dangerous as people build homes and businesses along flood-prone rivers and on storm-prone coastlines, with too little regard for seismic, fire, and wind hazards. Society continues to create new hazards, from super-toxic biological materials to high speed trains.

The challenge may be to develop a flexible strategy for managing a variety of environmental hazards and preparing for a variety of potential disasters. That would require a commitment to address known hazards, to identify potential hazards, and to cultivate public awareness of hazards to assure appropriate responses by individuals, families, communities, and states. Increased professionalization of emergency management personnel and agencies and increased scientific expertise that can be brought to bear in the assessment of environmental risks and the prediction of disasters are positive developments in that regard. At issue, however, is how to reduce the levels of risk to minimize costs without seeming to overregulate individual behaviors. For example, it is often suggested that private insurance can take the place of government programs. But, it is also argued, can government officials refuse to provide aid to those who chose not to purchase insurance when those victims of disaster may number in the thousands? More stringent construction standards and land use regulations, too, may keep people out of harm's way if officials and voters can be persuaded to support the regulations. The fundamental questions are: how much risk is there and how much are citizens willing to spend to reduce the risk?

WILLIAM L. WAUGH, JR.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Comfort, Louise K., ed., 1988. Managing Disaster: Strategies and Policy Perspectives. Durham, NC: Duke University Press

Drabek, Thomas E., 1987. The Professional Emergency Manager. Boulder: University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Monograph #44

May, Peter J., and Walter Williams, 1986. Disaster Policy Implementation: Managing Program Under Shared Goverance. New York: Plenum Press

McLoughlin, David, 1985. "A Framework for Integrated Emergency Management. Public Administration Review, vol. 45, special issue (January) 165-172

Myers, Mary Fran, 1993. "Bridging the Gap Between Research and Practice: The Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center". International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, vol. 11, no. 1 (March) 41-54

National Academy of Public Administration, 1993. Coping with Catastrophe: Building an Emergency Management System to Meet People's Needs in Natural and Manmade Disasters. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Public Administration

National Research Council, 1994. Facing the Challenge: The U.S National Report to the IDNDR World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction, Yokohama, Japan, May 23-27, 1994. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press

Sylves, Richard T. and William L. Waugh, Jr., eds., 1995. Cities and Disaster: North American Studies in Emergency Management. 2d ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers

Waugh, Jr., William L., 1990. Terrorism and Emergency Management: Policy and Administration. New York: Marcel Dekker

--, and Ronald John Hy, ed., 1990. Handbook of Emergency Management: Policies and Programs Dealing with Major Hazards and Disasters. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

EMINENT DOMAIN. The right of government to acquire private property for "public use" in exchange for "just compensation"; also known as condemnation. This

-752-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Editorial Board *
  • Title Page *
  • D 627
  • Bibliography 627
  • Bibliography 630
  • Bibliography 631
  • Bibliography 633
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 639
  • Bibliography 643
  • Bibliography 645
  • Bibliography 647
  • Bibliography 651
  • Bibliography 654
  • Bibliography 656
  • Bibliography 662
  • Bibliography 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • Bibliography 669
  • Bibliography 674
  • Bibliography 676
  • Bibliography 677
  • Bibliography 679
  • Bibliography 682
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 687
  • Bibliography 689
  • Bibliography 690
  • Bibliography 692
  • Bibliography 694
  • Bibliography 695
  • Bibliography 700
  • Bibliography 701
  • Bibliography 704
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 707
  • Bibliography 708
  • Bibliography 711
  • Bibliography 714
  • Bibliography 720
  • Bibliography 723
  • Bibliography 728
  • Bibliography 728
  • E 729
  • Bibliography 730
  • Bibliography 734
  • Bibliography 736
  • Bibliography 738
  • Bibliography 741
  • Bibliography 745
  • Bibliography 746
  • Bibliography 747
  • Bibliography 752
  • Bibliography 753
  • Bibliography 756
  • Bibliography 763
  • Bibliography 764
  • Bibliography 768
  • Bibliography 772
  • Bibliography 773
  • Bibliography 777
  • Bibliography 785
  • Bibliography 789
  • Bibliography 790
  • Bibliography 793
  • Bibliography 795
  • Bibliography 802
  • Bibliography 803
  • Bibliography 806
  • Bibliography 808
  • Bibliography 818
  • Bibliography 822
  • Bibliography 824
  • Bibliography 825
  • Bibliography 827
  • Bibliography 832
  • Bibliography 837
  • Bibliography 841
  • Bibliography 844
  • Bibliography 852
  • F 853
  • Bibliography 854
  • Bibliography 857
  • Bibliography 861
  • Bibliography 862
  • Bibliography 865
  • References 875
  • Bibliography 881
  • Bibliography 883
  • Bibliography 884
  • Bibliography 887
  • Bibliography 891
  • Bibliography 895
  • Bibliography 898
  • Bibliography 901
  • Bibliography 905
  • Bibliography 906
  • Bibliography 913
  • Bibliography 914
  • Bibliography 915
  • Bibliography 917
  • Bibliography 921
  • Bibliography 922
  • Bibliography 923
  • Bibliography 927
  • Bibliography 928
  • Bibliography 935
  • Bibliography 938
  • Bibliography 941
  • Bibliography 944
  • Bibliography 945
  • Bibliography 947
  • Bibliography 949
  • Bibliography 950
  • Bibliography 952
  • Bibliography 957
  • Bibliography 960
  • G 961
  • Bibliography 962
  • Bibliography 964
  • Bibliography 968
  • Bibliography 972
  • Bibliography 973
  • Bibliography 979
  • Bibliography 982
  • Bibliography 983
  • Bibliography 984
  • Bibliography 989
  • Bibliography 990
  • Bibliography 993
  • Bibliography 996
  • Bibliography 998
  • Bibliography 1002
  • Bibliography 1006
  • Bibliography 1007
  • Bibliography 1010
  • Bibliography 1014
  • Bibliography 1017
  • Bibliography 1018
  • Bibliography 1019
  • Bibliography 1023
  • Bibliography 1025
  • Bibliography 1030
  • Bibliography 1031
  • Bibliography 1035
  • H 1037
  • Bibliography 1039
  • Bibliograhy 1042
  • Bibliography 1046
  • Bibliography 1053
  • Bibliography 1058
  • Bibliography 1059
  • Bibliography 1061
  • Bibliography 1065
  • Bibliography 1069
  • Bibliography 1071
  • Bibliography 1072
  • Bibliography 1077
  • Bibliography 1078
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1082
  • I 1083
  • Bibliography 1086
  • Bibliography 1087
  • Bibliography 1091
  • Bibliography 1093
  • Bibliography 1097
  • Bibliography 1098
  • Bibliography 1100
  • Bibliography 1101
  • Bibliography 1105
  • Bibliography 1109
  • Bibliography 1110
  • Bibliography 1115
  • Bibliography 1120
  • Bibliography 1126
  • Bibliography 1129
  • Bibliography 1130
  • Bibliography 1133
  • Bibliography 1136
  • Bibliography 1138
  • Bibliography 1139
  • Bibliography 1141
  • Bibliography 1144
  • Bibliography 1145
  • Bibliography 1151
  • Bibliography 1154
  • Bibliography 1156
  • Bibliography 1159
  • Bibliography 1161
  • Bibliography 1167
  • Bibliography 1181
  • Bibliography 1191
  • Bibliography 1196
  • Bibliography 1198
  • Bibliography 1200
  • Bibliography 1201
  • J 1207
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1219
  • Bibliography 1220
  • Bibliography 1222
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1228
  • Bibliography 1233
  • Bibliography 1236
  • Bibliography 1238
  • K 1239
  • Bibliography 1240
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 1240

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.