International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

income, employment, or means. National provident funds, which reflect still another approach to Social Security, are mandatory savings plans that are publicly administered. Employees and, frequently, employers contribute to these plans, which then provide lump sum benefits. These approaches to social security have no meaningful counterparts within the U.S. system of entitlement benefits.

RICHARD DOYLE


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cahill, Kenneth, 1992. "Entitlements and other Mandatory Spending" Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.

Congressional Budget Office (CBO), 1992. Projections of National Health Expenditures. Washington, DC: GPO.

-----, 1994. Reducing Entitlement Spending. Washington, DC: GPO.

-----, 1995a. The Economic and Budget Outlook: Fiscal Years 1996-2000. Washington, DC: GPO.

-----, 1995b. The Economic and Budget Outlook: An Update. Washington, DC: GPO.

-----, 1995c. Reducing the Deficit: Spending and Revenue Options. Washington, DC: GPO.

Dixon, John, and Robert Scheurell, 1993. "Social Security: A Cross-cultural Perspective". Policy Studies Review 12: 85-91.

Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, 1995. Budget System and Concepts of the United States Government. Washington, DC: GPO.

Hagar, George, 1993. "Entitlements: The Untouchable May Become Unavoidable". Congressional Quarterly, Jan. 2: 22-30.

Ornstein, Norman, 1993. "Roots of 'Entitlements,' and Budget Woes". Wall Street Journal, Dec. 14.

Peterson, Peter, 1994. "Entitlement Reform: The Way to Eliminate the Deficit", New York Review of Books, Apr. 7:39-47.

Rubin, Irene, 1990. The Politics of Public Budgeting. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publications.

Safire, William, 1993. Safire's New Political Dictionary. New York: Random House.

Schick, Allen, 1984. Legislation, Appropriations, and Budgets: The Development of Spending Decision-Making in Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.

----- ( U.S. Congress. House Committee on the Budget), 1987. The Whole and the Parts: Piecemeal and Integrated Approaches to Congressional Budgeting. Washington, DC: GPO.

Schick, Allen, Robert Keith, and Ed Davis, 1991. Manual on the Federal Budget Process. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.

Steuerle, Eugene, and Jon Bakija, 1994. Retooling Social Security for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

Taylor, Paul, 1991. "Like Taking Money From a Baby". Washington Post National Weekly Edition Mar. 4-10:31.

U.S. Congress. House. 1990. Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, H. Rpt. 101-964. Washington, DC: GPO.

Weaver, R. Kent, 1985. "Controlling Entitlements". In John Chubb and Paul Peterson, eds., The New Directions in American Politics. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, pp. 307-41.

Wildavsky, Aaron, 1988. The New Politics of the Budgetary Process. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.


ENTREPRENEURIAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.

A philosophical position and a managerial style that stresses innovation, the search for new opportunities, calculated risk taking, an emphasis on results and performance (such as outcome measurement, revenue generation, and profit making), rewards for merit, managerial autonomy, competitive market forces, and a future orientation. It is often contrasted with bureaucratic public administration, which is characterized by stability, standard operating procedures, monopolies, close limitations on authority, lack of measurable outputs, and a short-term orientation.

French economist J. B. Say ( 1767-1832) is credited with coining the term "entrepreneur" in about 1800 to refer to industrialists who shifted resources from areas of low yield to areas of higher yield. Early uses of entrepreneurial management referred to the expeditions of French military leaders and French businessmen who undertook major public works. The economist Joseph Schumpeter ( 1883-1950) described businessmen who took calculated risks with capital, increased profits and productivity, and opened new markets as entrepreneurs.

Entrepreneurship has been most associated with startup ventures, innovation, risk taking, and profit making in the private sector. Although some of the elements of public entrepreneurship -- such as municipal airports run as revenue-generating public enterprises-have been around for many years, it was not until the 1980s that a few public administrators began to refer to themselves as public entrepreneurs. The most notable of them, Ted Gaebler, former city manager of Visalia, California, went on to help establish the reinventing government movement with the publication of Reinventing Government (with David Osborne) in 1992. This book expanded the notion of entrepreneurial public administration to include a focus on the customer, decentralized government structures, empowerment of employees and communities, a catalyst role for government, and mission-driven organizations.


Types of Entrepreneurial Public Administration

Entrepreneurial public administration can be viewed as either economic entrepreneurship or political or policy entrepreneurship. The most widely referred to type is economic entrepreneurship, where public managers, under pressure to limit or reduce taxes, have developed clever means to increase nontax revenues. In 1983, the International City Management Association published a collection of readings entitled The Entrepreneur in Local Government, which detailed the activities of several public managers who practiced this economic entrepreneurial style of management. An example of an economic entrepreneurial project is a city using its powers to acquire and

-772-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Editorial Board *
  • Title Page *
  • D 627
  • Bibliography 627
  • Bibliography 630
  • Bibliography 631
  • Bibliography 633
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 639
  • Bibliography 643
  • Bibliography 645
  • Bibliography 647
  • Bibliography 651
  • Bibliography 654
  • Bibliography 656
  • Bibliography 662
  • Bibliography 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • Bibliography 669
  • Bibliography 674
  • Bibliography 676
  • Bibliography 677
  • Bibliography 679
  • Bibliography 682
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 687
  • Bibliography 689
  • Bibliography 690
  • Bibliography 692
  • Bibliography 694
  • Bibliography 695
  • Bibliography 700
  • Bibliography 701
  • Bibliography 704
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 707
  • Bibliography 708
  • Bibliography 711
  • Bibliography 714
  • Bibliography 720
  • Bibliography 723
  • Bibliography 728
  • Bibliography 728
  • E 729
  • Bibliography 730
  • Bibliography 734
  • Bibliography 736
  • Bibliography 738
  • Bibliography 741
  • Bibliography 745
  • Bibliography 746
  • Bibliography 747
  • Bibliography 752
  • Bibliography 753
  • Bibliography 756
  • Bibliography 763
  • Bibliography 764
  • Bibliography 768
  • Bibliography 772
  • Bibliography 773
  • Bibliography 777
  • Bibliography 785
  • Bibliography 789
  • Bibliography 790
  • Bibliography 793
  • Bibliography 795
  • Bibliography 802
  • Bibliography 803
  • Bibliography 806
  • Bibliography 808
  • Bibliography 818
  • Bibliography 822
  • Bibliography 824
  • Bibliography 825
  • Bibliography 827
  • Bibliography 832
  • Bibliography 837
  • Bibliography 841
  • Bibliography 844
  • Bibliography 852
  • F 853
  • Bibliography 854
  • Bibliography 857
  • Bibliography 861
  • Bibliography 862
  • Bibliography 865
  • References 875
  • Bibliography 881
  • Bibliography 883
  • Bibliography 884
  • Bibliography 887
  • Bibliography 891
  • Bibliography 895
  • Bibliography 898
  • Bibliography 901
  • Bibliography 905
  • Bibliography 906
  • Bibliography 913
  • Bibliography 914
  • Bibliography 915
  • Bibliography 917
  • Bibliography 921
  • Bibliography 922
  • Bibliography 923
  • Bibliography 927
  • Bibliography 928
  • Bibliography 935
  • Bibliography 938
  • Bibliography 941
  • Bibliography 944
  • Bibliography 945
  • Bibliography 947
  • Bibliography 949
  • Bibliography 950
  • Bibliography 952
  • Bibliography 957
  • Bibliography 960
  • G 961
  • Bibliography 962
  • Bibliography 964
  • Bibliography 968
  • Bibliography 972
  • Bibliography 973
  • Bibliography 979
  • Bibliography 982
  • Bibliography 983
  • Bibliography 984
  • Bibliography 989
  • Bibliography 990
  • Bibliography 993
  • Bibliography 996
  • Bibliography 998
  • Bibliography 1002
  • Bibliography 1006
  • Bibliography 1007
  • Bibliography 1010
  • Bibliography 1014
  • Bibliography 1017
  • Bibliography 1018
  • Bibliography 1019
  • Bibliography 1023
  • Bibliography 1025
  • Bibliography 1030
  • Bibliography 1031
  • Bibliography 1035
  • H 1037
  • Bibliography 1039
  • Bibliograhy 1042
  • Bibliography 1046
  • Bibliography 1053
  • Bibliography 1058
  • Bibliography 1059
  • Bibliography 1061
  • Bibliography 1065
  • Bibliography 1069
  • Bibliography 1071
  • Bibliography 1072
  • Bibliography 1077
  • Bibliography 1078
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1082
  • I 1083
  • Bibliography 1086
  • Bibliography 1087
  • Bibliography 1091
  • Bibliography 1093
  • Bibliography 1097
  • Bibliography 1098
  • Bibliography 1100
  • Bibliography 1101
  • Bibliography 1105
  • Bibliography 1109
  • Bibliography 1110
  • Bibliography 1115
  • Bibliography 1120
  • Bibliography 1126
  • Bibliography 1129
  • Bibliography 1130
  • Bibliography 1133
  • Bibliography 1136
  • Bibliography 1138
  • Bibliography 1139
  • Bibliography 1141
  • Bibliography 1144
  • Bibliography 1145
  • Bibliography 1151
  • Bibliography 1154
  • Bibliography 1156
  • Bibliography 1159
  • Bibliography 1161
  • Bibliography 1167
  • Bibliography 1181
  • Bibliography 1191
  • Bibliography 1196
  • Bibliography 1198
  • Bibliography 1200
  • Bibliography 1201
  • J 1207
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1219
  • Bibliography 1220
  • Bibliography 1222
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1228
  • Bibliography 1233
  • Bibliography 1236
  • Bibliography 1238
  • K 1239
  • Bibliography 1240
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 1240

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.