income, employment, or means. National provident funds, which reflect still another approach to Social Security, are mandatory savings plans that are publicly administered. Employees and, frequently, employers contribute to these plans, which then provide lump sum benefits. These approaches to social security have no meaningful counterparts within the U.S. system of entitlement benefits.
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A philosophical position and a managerial style that stresses innovation, the search for new opportunities, calculated risk taking, an emphasis on results and performance (such as outcome measurement, revenue generation, and profit making), rewards for merit, managerial autonomy, competitive market forces, and a future orientation. It is often contrasted with bureaucratic public administration, which is characterized by stability, standard operating procedures, monopolies, close limitations on authority, lack of measurable outputs, and a short-term orientation.
French economist J. B. Say ( 1767-1832) is credited with coining the term "entrepreneur" in about 1800 to refer to industrialists who shifted resources from areas of low yield to areas of higher yield. Early uses of entrepreneurial management referred to the expeditions of French military leaders and French businessmen who undertook major public works. The economist Joseph Schumpeter ( 1883-1950) described businessmen who took calculated risks with capital, increased profits and productivity, and opened new markets as entrepreneurs.
Entrepreneurship has been most associated with startup ventures, innovation, risk taking, and profit making in the private sector. Although some of the elements of public entrepreneurship -- such as municipal airports run as revenue-generating public enterprises-have been around for many years, it was not until the 1980s that a few public administrators began to refer to themselves as public entrepreneurs. The most notable of them, Ted Gaebler, former city manager of Visalia, California, went on to help establish the reinventing government movement with the publication of Reinventing Government (with David Osborne) in 1992. This book expanded the notion of entrepreneurial public administration to include a focus on the customer, decentralized government structures, empowerment of employees and communities, a catalyst role for government, and mission-driven organizations.
Entrepreneurial public administration can be viewed as either economic entrepreneurship or political or policy entrepreneurship. The most widely referred to type is economic entrepreneurship, where public managers, under pressure to limit or reduce taxes, have developed clever means to increase nontax revenues. In 1983, the International City Management Association published a collection of readings entitled The Entrepreneur in Local Government, which detailed the activities of several public managers who practiced this economic entrepreneurial style of management. An example of an economic entrepreneurial project is a city using its powers to acquire and