Commerce Clause analysis, the Court has called waste "interstate commerce" and has refused to allow state and local governments to keep waste either in (see C & A Carbone, Inc. et al. v. Clarkstown, New York, 114 Sup. Ct. 1677 [ 1994]) or out (see, for example, Fort Gratiot Sanitary Landfill, Inc. v. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, 112 Sup. Ct. 2019 [ 1992]) of its jurisdictions.
Environmental policy is a young, growing, and challenging field. In 1990 the EPA concluded that the United States devoted 2 percent of its gross national product to controlling pollution and to cleaning up the environment. As new sources of pollution are discovered and the full impact of old and new sources of pollution becomes more fully understood, the delayed effects on our ecosystem become increasingly apparent and the percentage of the gross national product that is devoted to pollution cleanup is expected to rise. The policy questions and administrative challenges inherent in environmental issues are of interest to academics and nonacademics, public managers, policy analysts, environmentalists, conservationists, preservationists, and members of the general public alike. Environmental policy is here to stay.
ROSEMARY O'LEARY AND PAUL WEILAND
The authors thank Lynton K. Caldwell and Larry Schroeder for helpful comments on a previous draft.
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ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, INTERNATIONAL. Multinational plans to protect and preserve the environment in the best interest of humankind. The word "environment" refers to both natural and artificial surroundings. Humans have altered the environment by their actions, both willfully and inadvertently. Years of industrial abuse, misguided use of technology, and lack of governmental concern have been responsible for the rapid deterioration in the quality of the environment ( Jackson 1973). The realization of the harmful consequences of environmental degradation have fostered an urgency to formulate environmental policies. Environmental policies are not single-purpose policies to preserve and protect the natural and other aspects of the environment in its unaltered state ( Jackson 1973); instead, they are comprehensive policies aimed at preservation and protection of the environment, in harmony with the social and economic welfare of the country.
Science and technology had once aided humans in their intensive exploitation of the natural world, and it is now helping to determine the extent and nature of the damages and crises in it. This action has brought about a consequent change in attitude toward the environment ( McCormick 1989). In fact, it has created a dramatic shift in paradigm. In the past, it was generally believed that the earth was bountiful, with inexhaustible resources for exploitation, but over-exploitation of natural resources has brought about a disequilibrium in our natural environment. It has posed serious threats to survival of various forms of life on this planet and has further helped to confirm the new findings of the limitations of the ecological system ( Caldwell 1990). This situation has led to the recognition of the fragility of the ecosystem of "spaceship earth," with limited resources ( Boulding 1993, p. 303). This realization has also been beneficial in creating a greater need for protection, maintenance, and restoration of the quality of the environment.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, environmental problems were local and were considered mainly to be national issues. The rapid industrialization of nations, and often the misguided application of science and