International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

expensive. No regulations can be blamed solely for significant reduction in productivity of industries nor for producing any competitive disadvantages in the global economy ( Ringquist 1995).

In assessment of environmental outcomes of policy, there exists evidences of improvement in environmental quality over time even though substantive assessment is a difficult process. It is the limitations in measurement that pose obstacles to social scientists in determining the extent of improvement in environmental quality. Often, the data required to evaluate the impact of environmental regulations are unavailable. Limitations in modeling also fail to determine whether improvements in environmental quality have been achieved through regulations or through other natural changes in the environment. In addition, the unfamiliarity of social scientists with the technical aspects of measurement have been responsible for negligence in assessment of true substantive outcomes of environmental policy ( Ringquist 1995).

In conclusion, it can be stated that the multidimensional aspects of environmental policy cannot be blamed for its incompetency. Environmental policies are essential to address the various complex problems arising from the industrial, and agricultural structure of our society. The regulations that are now responsible for the multitudinous laws that restrict agricultural, industrial and commercial activities all over the world in the name of protection of the environment are all based upon human needs and demands for preservation of the environment. It is the existence of environmental policy that assures citizens of all countries the protection and preservation of the environment for us and for our future generations.

SARMISTHA R. MAJUMDAR


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Boulding, Kenneth, 1993. "The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth". In Herman E. Daly, and Kenneth N. Townsend , eds., Valuing the Earth. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Caldwell, Lynton K., 1990. International Environmental Policy. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

-----, 1995. Environment as a Focus for Public Policy. College Station, TX: Texas A & M University Press.

Goodstein, Eban, 1995. Economics and the Environment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Jackson, Henry M., 1973. "Environmental Policy and the Congress". In Albert E. Utton, and Daniel H. Henning, eds., Environmental Policy. New York: Praeger.

Kelman, Steven, 1981. Regulating America, Regulating Sweden. Cambridge: MIT Press.

McConnell, Grant, 1973. "The Environmental Movement: Ambiguities and Meanings". In Utton and Henning, Environmental Policy. New York: Praeger.

McCormick, John, 1989. Reclaiming Paradise. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Owen, Oliver S., 1985. Natural Resource Conservation. New York: Macmillan.

Ringquist, Evan J., 1995. "Evaluating Environmental Policy Outcomes". In James P. Lester, ed., Environmental Politics and Policy. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Rosenbaum, Walter A., 1977. The Politics of Environmental Concern. New York: Praeger.

-----, 1985. Environmental Politics and Policy. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Schultze, Charles L. 1977. The Public Use of Private Interest. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY. The concept that all persons, regardless of race, ethnicity, gender, religion, age, disability status, or other non job related criteria should be given an equal chance to compete for employment on the basis of merit. Efforts to ensure equal employment opportunity (EEO) are designed to prevent and overcome intentional and nonintentional discrimination against minorities, women, and other groups who have historically borne the burden of discrimination (see discrimination, disability; discrimination, gender; discrimination, racial; and affirmative action). In the United States and many other nations, the principle of equal opportunity is widely shared, but programs designed to ensure equal opportunity in employment did not begin to operate before the 1940s, and early efforts were extremely limited in scope and effectiveness. It is only in the past few decades that these efforts have received considerable attention.

EEO programs usually begin with policy statements prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, ethnicity, gender, age, or other factors. In the United States, such statements have been articulated in presidential executive orders and in statutes such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and the Civil Rights Act of 1991, among others. Individual employers also usually include antidiscrimination statements in personnel policy manuals or similar documents. Statements forbidding discrimination are, however, unlikely by themselves to be effective. For that reason, statutes, orders, or other directives containing such statements commonly provide for additional programmatic efforts to overcome the effects of discrimination.

Most equal employment opportunity programs, for example, include procedures through which individual complaints of discrimination are investigated and, hopefully, resolved. Typically, the first step in this process involves efforts by a supervisor or other representative of the employer to informally resolve the dispute. If that proves impossible, most programs provide opportunity for the employee to file a formal complaint with the employer alleging discrimination, and an investigation by the employer will take place. On the basis of that investigation, the employer may take action to settle the case. In the

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International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
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