for tax cuts grow louder? What are the public policy issues surrounding concerns about a defective or failed economy in which the underclass grows larger and middle-class incomes fall, and a smaller percentage of the population controls a greater percentage of the total wealth of the nation? Public managers who would be leaders need to familiarize themselves with these and the many other issues surrounding the nonprofit sector in their domain, in order to be responsive to the rapidly changing needs and demands of those organizations and the people that they serve.
PETER J. VAN HOOK
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EURATOM. The name by which the European Atomic Energy Community is commonly known. This supranational organization was established by the Treaty of Rome, which was signed in 1957 and came into operation in 1958, together with the European Economic Community (EEC). The new organization was created by the founding member states of the European Coal and Steel Community, namely, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The Rome Treaties of 1957 were an effort to relaunch the process of European integration after the failure of the proposed European Defense Community in 1954.
For Jean Monnet, who drafted the Schuman Plan, which led to the European Coal and Steel Community, and who was also the spiritual father of the Rome Treaty, Euratom was the more important of the two new organizations. It presented an important economic sector in which integration was desirable and could lead to "spillover, " that is, would prompt further integration into other policy areas. The emergence of Euratom can only be understood in the context of its time: the growing realization that fossil-based fuel was destined to run sooner or later led European states to seek alternative sources of energy, including atomic or nuclear energy. Moreover, Monnet believed that a collective European approach to research and development in nuclear energy could forestall the emergence in France of its own nuclear bomb. This aim was supported by the U.S. government, which was not only concerned with safeguarding export opportunities in Europe but also eager to stem the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
The proposal to establish Euratom was accepted by the French National Assembly on the basis that, first, France could expect to benefit from the technological expertise of the other member states; second, France could gain access to the high-quality uranium deposits of the Belgian Congo, now Zaire; third, France could expect to be a net beneficiary of the Euratom budget since the French nuclear research program amounted to two-thirds of research of all the member states combined; fourth, the creation of Euratom with its supranational institutional structure meant that West Germany would not develop a national nuclear industry; finally, the French won an important concession during the negotiations that led to the Rome Treaty, namely, that in cases in which national security was concerned, it would not be obligatory to exchange technological information and expertise. Alternately, West Germany was less in favor of Euratom than of the EEC, fearing the adverse effects on its coal-producing regions, such as the Rhineland, of which Konrad Adenauer was a native. The French, however, were prepared to accept the EEC and its proposed customs union and common market only in return for Euratom.
The objective of Euratom was to control and direct the development of a European nuclear energy industry and, ultimately, a common nuclear energy policy. The institutional structure of the new organization was based on that of the European Coal and Steel Community. A new commission and a new council of ministers was created. The