come to see that Taylor was working from the shop floor upward, whereas he was working down from the level of the general manager.
In 1918, at the age of 77 and still in good health, Fayol retired, acclaimed by his industrial colleagues for his business success and praised for his writing by a growing international audience. He continued to speak and write about his management principles, frequently serving as a consultant to business and government. He was a vigorous proponent of teaching management generally, encouraging the formation of courses and schools on the subject.
Fayol was the first to realize that there are transferrable principles that apply to any administrative endeavor. His primary contribution to the literature on administration is to have articulated this basic truth, to have set out the first list of those principles, and to have pointed to the necessity for teaching them generally. "Administration . . . embraces not only the public service but enterprises of every size and description, of every form and every purpose. We are no longer confronted with several administrative sciences but with one alone, which can be applied equally well to public and to private affairs" ( 1937, p. 101).
Fayol was the first of the management theorists who differentiated what managers do from the activities of production. Industry, for him, consisted of six sets of activities: technical, commercial, financial, security, accounting, and managerial. Thus, his was a functional view of management ("Management is merely one of the six functions" [ 1949, p. 6]). He viewed managers chiefly as planners who organized, coordinated, and controlled organizational efforts. Such managerial skills, Fayol realized, were universal, if not universally needed. Thus, Fayol is equally important for his principles of management and for his conviction about the universality of management.
Fayol identified fourteen principles of the management role. He did not use the word "principle" to mean rule or law, but as an axiom or precept. Indeed, he used the term reluctantly, because he hoped that the principles would be signposts on the road to a complete theory of management. Fayol's fourteen principles are: Division of work; authority; discipline; unity of command; unity of direction; subordination of individual interests to the general interest; remuneration; centralization; the scalar chain (line of authority); order; equity; stability of tenure of personnel; initiative; and, esprit de corps. Fayol did not believe his list was exhaustive, but he did believe that a list of a dozen or so principles should be developed and discussed generally, from which theory could be developed.
Fayol popularized a number of management concepts. Along with the scalar chain-the idea that similar levels of administration in an organization carried similar weights of responsibility -- was "Fayol's bridge." He stated strongly, almost sarcastically, that an organization could waste itself into failure by forcing employees to relate to peers in other parts of the firm only by way of the management ladder. Instead, management should encourage "bridges" between people at similar levels, saving time and money, and encouraging responsibility and resourcefulness.
The first French edition of Administration industrielle et générale is found in the Bulletin of the Société de l'Industrie Minérale, 1916. Parts 3 and 4 of General and Industrial Management were never completed by the author. They were to cover his practical application of theory. The work was not well known outside of Europe until the second English translation was published in 1949 (reprinted several times through 1965). A later speech, "The Administrative Theory in the State," presented in 1923 to the Second International Congress of Administrative Science at Brussels and reproduced by Gulick and Urwick ( 1937), represented his definitive application of management principles to public administration.
Fayol's underlying purpose for delineating principles of management was to provide a basis for the teaching of managers. The entire first part of General and Industrial Management is a defense of the necessity of teaching management. In his view there were no schools of management because there was no management theory. He railed against courses of study that were exclusively technical. The second part of his book, in which he lays out his principles, exists to indicate what this teaching might be.
PETER J. VAN HOOK
Fayol, Henri, 1930 . General and Industrial Management. Trans. J. A. Coubrough. Geneva: International Management Institute.
------, 1937 . "The Administrative Theory in the State." In Gulick, Luther, and Lyndall Urwick, eds., Papers on the Science of Administration, Trans. Sarah Greer. New York: Institute of Public Administration, Columbia University.
------, 1965 [1916, 1949]. General and Industrial Management. Trans. Constance Storrs; foreword by Luther Gulick. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons.
Works on Fayol
Bibliographical notes can be found in Breeze ( 1985) and Urwick ( 1956). In the latter there is a listing of articles and monographs by Fayol. Urwick's "Foreword" to the Storrs version contains a summary biography, an abstract of Fayol's administrative life, and a discussion of the difficulty of translating the French "administration" into the English "management" or "administration."
Breeze, John D., 1985. "Harvest from the Archives: The Search for Fayol and Carlioz". Journal of Management vol. 11 ( 1): 43-54.
Brodie, M. B., 1967. Fayol on Administration. London: Lyon, Grant, & Green.
Carter, Nancy M., 1986. "Review of General and Industrial Management". The Academy of Management Review vol. 11 ( 2): 454-456.
Urwick, Lyndall. 1937 . "The Function of Administration, with Special Reference to the Work of Henri Fayol." In Gulick, Luther, and Lyndall Urwick, eds., Papers on theScience of Administration