International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

of health care fraud, waste, and abuse schemes and wasted resources have been identified by government investigators, auditors, and insurance specialists.

Fraud, waste, and abuse offenses committed by administrative personnel in programs include: employee misrepresentation of recipient eligibility; overpayments or underpayments to recipients, third parties, or auxiliary providers; and withholding services and benefits to beneficiaries.

Examples of crimes perpetrated by auxiliary providers are collusive bidding, inferior delivery of services, and malicious destruction of records.

In addition, fraud, waste, and abuse are sometimes committed by organized criminal groups intent on shifting the balance of political power or wealth, creating "black markets."

Finally, some schemes are committed by street criminals who use government checks, food stamps, and so on for personal gain.

In some entitlement programs, the benefits themselves are counterfeited, altered, or manipulated, either manually or by technical means, thus compromising program objectives and derailing delivery networks. To reduce opportunities for fraud, waste, and abuse of checks, food stamps, coupons, or tokens in these programs, new electronic delivery systems are being installed that utilize computer debit "smart" cards. The risk-assessment premise is that by decreasing the number of benefit transfer points in the delivery process, program vulnerabilities can be reduced.

Fraud, waste, and abuse are particularly extensive in procurement. When public bureaucracies acquire and distribute large quantities of goods and services, the integrity of the process can be jeopardized by fraud, waste, and abuse. In the early 1990s, for example, over half of the U.S. Department of Defense budget was devoted to procurement. In one of the largest procurement prosecutions, clubbed "Ill Wind," dozens of defense contractors and Pentagon current and former employees were convicted for accepting kickbacks and paying bribes to obtain contract work illegally.

Typically, fraud, waste, and abuse occur in procurement systems in which there are excessive regulations and in those that lack competitive bidding processes or that require multiple layers of negotiations using intermediaries. Ineffective and inadequate internal checks and audits also create opportunities for malfeasance.

The number of civil and criminal prosecutions at both federal and state levels has increased dramatically over the past 20 years. In the federal court system, sentencing guidelines for white-collar offenses specify sanctions for fraud in government assistance programs and government procurement. Other prosecutorial techniques that have been used effectively include: the use of multijurisdictional task forces, targeting of prosecutions, and in very serious cases, invocation of the independent counsel statute whereby a special prosecutor pursues the investigation. Prosecutorial and investigative techniques, such as the use of financial document search warrants to seize records, files, accounting ledgers, and computer hardware and software, have proved helpful for combating fraud. The initiation of undercover investigations, storefront or sting operations, and increased use of visual and telephonic interceptions have also aided investigations and prosecutions in certain cases. Responses to fraud, waste, and abuse have also come from the administrative adjudication process. Administrative suspensions and debarments, for example, are being used with more frequency in benefit abuse and procurement cases now than in the past.

ANDREA G. LANGE


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ackerman, Susan Rose, 1978. Corruption: A Study of Political Economy. New York: Academic Press.

Anthony, Robert N., and Regina E. Herzlinger, 1975. Management Control in Nonprofit Organizations. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.

Citizens Against Government Waste, 1995. Prime Cuts, 1995 Menu to Cure the "Waste Tax. Washington, DC: GPO.

Coleman, James W., 1985. The Criminal Elite: The Sociology of White-Collar Crime. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Geis, Gilbert, and Ezra Stotland, eds., 1980. White-Collar Crime: Theory and Research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Hamm, William, 1986. "What Do We Mean by Waste in Government?" In Jerome B. McKinney and Michael Johnston, eds., Fraud, Waste, and Abuse in Government. Philadelphia: ISHI Publications.

Johnston, Michael, 1986. "Systemic Origins of Fraud, Waste, and Abuse". In Jerome B. McKinney and Michael Johnston , eds., Fraud, Waste, and Abuse in Government. Philadelphia: ISHI Publications.

Lange, Andrea G., 1994 "An Exploratory Study of Organizational Deviance and Insider White-Collar Crimes in the Savings and Loan Industry Using an Organizational Ecology Paradigm". Ph. D. diss., The American University, Washington, DC.

Lange, Andrea G., and Robert A. Bowers, 1979. Fraud and Abuse in Government Benefit Programs. Washington, DC: GPO.

McKinney, Jerome B., 1986. "Concepts and Definitions". In Jerome B. McKinney and Michael Johnston, eds., Fraud, Waste, and Abuse in Government. Philadelphia: ISHI Publications.

Pilzer, Paul Zane, and Robert Deitz, 1989. Other People's Money. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Sutherland, Edwin H., 1961. White Collar Crime. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Weber, Max, 1947. The Themy of Social and Economic Organization. Trans. A. Henderson and Talcott Parsons, New York: Free Press.

FREEDOM OF INFORMATION (FOI). Laws that provide members of the community with a legally enforceable right of access to information in the possession

-941-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Editorial Board *
  • Title Page *
  • D 627
  • Bibliography 627
  • Bibliography 630
  • Bibliography 631
  • Bibliography 633
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 639
  • Bibliography 643
  • Bibliography 645
  • Bibliography 647
  • Bibliography 651
  • Bibliography 654
  • Bibliography 656
  • Bibliography 662
  • Bibliography 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • Bibliography 669
  • Bibliography 674
  • Bibliography 676
  • Bibliography 677
  • Bibliography 679
  • Bibliography 682
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 687
  • Bibliography 689
  • Bibliography 690
  • Bibliography 692
  • Bibliography 694
  • Bibliography 695
  • Bibliography 700
  • Bibliography 701
  • Bibliography 704
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 707
  • Bibliography 708
  • Bibliography 711
  • Bibliography 714
  • Bibliography 720
  • Bibliography 723
  • Bibliography 728
  • Bibliography 728
  • E 729
  • Bibliography 730
  • Bibliography 734
  • Bibliography 736
  • Bibliography 738
  • Bibliography 741
  • Bibliography 745
  • Bibliography 746
  • Bibliography 747
  • Bibliography 752
  • Bibliography 753
  • Bibliography 756
  • Bibliography 763
  • Bibliography 764
  • Bibliography 768
  • Bibliography 772
  • Bibliography 773
  • Bibliography 777
  • Bibliography 785
  • Bibliography 789
  • Bibliography 790
  • Bibliography 793
  • Bibliography 795
  • Bibliography 802
  • Bibliography 803
  • Bibliography 806
  • Bibliography 808
  • Bibliography 818
  • Bibliography 822
  • Bibliography 824
  • Bibliography 825
  • Bibliography 827
  • Bibliography 832
  • Bibliography 837
  • Bibliography 841
  • Bibliography 844
  • Bibliography 852
  • F 853
  • Bibliography 854
  • Bibliography 857
  • Bibliography 861
  • Bibliography 862
  • Bibliography 865
  • References 875
  • Bibliography 881
  • Bibliography 883
  • Bibliography 884
  • Bibliography 887
  • Bibliography 891
  • Bibliography 895
  • Bibliography 898
  • Bibliography 901
  • Bibliography 905
  • Bibliography 906
  • Bibliography 913
  • Bibliography 914
  • Bibliography 915
  • Bibliography 917
  • Bibliography 921
  • Bibliography 922
  • Bibliography 923
  • Bibliography 927
  • Bibliography 928
  • Bibliography 935
  • Bibliography 938
  • Bibliography 941
  • Bibliography 944
  • Bibliography 945
  • Bibliography 947
  • Bibliography 949
  • Bibliography 950
  • Bibliography 952
  • Bibliography 957
  • Bibliography 960
  • G 961
  • Bibliography 962
  • Bibliography 964
  • Bibliography 968
  • Bibliography 972
  • Bibliography 973
  • Bibliography 979
  • Bibliography 982
  • Bibliography 983
  • Bibliography 984
  • Bibliography 989
  • Bibliography 990
  • Bibliography 993
  • Bibliography 996
  • Bibliography 998
  • Bibliography 1002
  • Bibliography 1006
  • Bibliography 1007
  • Bibliography 1010
  • Bibliography 1014
  • Bibliography 1017
  • Bibliography 1018
  • Bibliography 1019
  • Bibliography 1023
  • Bibliography 1025
  • Bibliography 1030
  • Bibliography 1031
  • Bibliography 1035
  • H 1037
  • Bibliography 1039
  • Bibliograhy 1042
  • Bibliography 1046
  • Bibliography 1053
  • Bibliography 1058
  • Bibliography 1059
  • Bibliography 1061
  • Bibliography 1065
  • Bibliography 1069
  • Bibliography 1071
  • Bibliography 1072
  • Bibliography 1077
  • Bibliography 1078
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1082
  • I 1083
  • Bibliography 1086
  • Bibliography 1087
  • Bibliography 1091
  • Bibliography 1093
  • Bibliography 1097
  • Bibliography 1098
  • Bibliography 1100
  • Bibliography 1101
  • Bibliography 1105
  • Bibliography 1109
  • Bibliography 1110
  • Bibliography 1115
  • Bibliography 1120
  • Bibliography 1126
  • Bibliography 1129
  • Bibliography 1130
  • Bibliography 1133
  • Bibliography 1136
  • Bibliography 1138
  • Bibliography 1139
  • Bibliography 1141
  • Bibliography 1144
  • Bibliography 1145
  • Bibliography 1151
  • Bibliography 1154
  • Bibliography 1156
  • Bibliography 1159
  • Bibliography 1161
  • Bibliography 1167
  • Bibliography 1181
  • Bibliography 1191
  • Bibliography 1196
  • Bibliography 1198
  • Bibliography 1200
  • Bibliography 1201
  • J 1207
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1219
  • Bibliography 1220
  • Bibliography 1222
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1228
  • Bibliography 1233
  • Bibliography 1236
  • Bibliography 1238
  • K 1239
  • Bibliography 1240
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 1240

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.