individual must provide evidence of current status, enrollment, or otherwise.
Membership fees provide a stable base of income and are less capricious than funding secured from an annual special event. Yet as more and more organizations seek memberships, those with similar goals have begun to enter into a competitive marketplace to entice members. When this occurs, membership drives promise not only to provide the obvious service (such as quality programming on public radio or television, or a subscription to a professional journal or zoo magazine) but also offer to provide the member with an item of extrinsic value, such as a coffee mug, an umbrella, a calendar, or a tote bag. These items provide a dual service to the organization: The membership fee is viewed to be more competitive because a gift is included, and the gift often serves as an advertising tool. People carrying tote bags with the name of the museum act as advertising agents. Under federal law, the item received must be deducted from the tax-deductible membership fee to the organization, so such advertising is not publicly supported.
Another fund-raising technique used by nonprofit organizations with access to the airwaves is the use of the corporate challenge gift. This is the process whereby individuals or companies seek to leverage their support for a philanthropic cause or nonprofit organization during a public fund-raising campaign by requiring that a specific amount be raised from the general public prior to making a sizable donation (see challenge gift).
Special events such as bike-a-thons, marathons, golf tournaments, concerts, and auctions are common fundraising methods employed by many organizations. School children are often involved; and recent research indicates that the demographic bump of post -- World War II baby boomers, as a group, may give more readily when they can be physically involved in the process through some type of sporting event or physical competition organized to raise money for a cause.
Professional fund-raisers or development officers find that if their organization chooses to be involved in largescale, ongoing campaigns of great significance (in health care, education, community development, or the arts, for example) they need to seek not only memberships and fees for services rendered but also additional revenues from granting agencies, corporations, or individuals, and sometimes government contracts. This desire, or the organizational need that comes from environmental uncertainty and fiscal stress, pressures the fund-raising personnel constantly and requires an ongoing attentiveness and professional focus, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the organization. Although fund-raisers may enter the field without professional training, once employed they find that other requisites of the profession (such as ethics and communication with others in the field through conferences and professional publications) are essential to their, and their organization's, success.
American Association of Fund-Raising Council (AAFRC), annual. Giving USA. New York: AAFRC.
-----, quarterly. Giving USA Update. New York: AAFRC.
Burlingame, Dwight F., and Lamont J. Hulse, 1991. Taking Fund Raising Seriously: Advancing the Profession and Practice of Raising Money. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Nonprofit Sector Series.
Chronicle of Philanthropy, biweekly (see various issues). Washington, D.C.
Clotfelter, Charles. 1985. Federal Tax Policy and Charitable Giving. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Commission on Private Philanthropy and Public Needs, 1975. Giving in America. Washington, DC: Commission.
Cutlip, Scott. 1965. Fund Raising in the United States: Its Role in American Philanthropy. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Filer Commission. See Commission on Private Philanthropy and Public Needs.
Fund Raising Management, monthly (see various issues). Garden City, NY: Hoke Communications.
Gronbjerg, Kirsten A., 1993. Understanding Nonprofit Funding: Managing Revenues in Social Services and Community Development Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Nonprofit Sector Series.
Harrah-Conforth, Jeanne, and John Borsos, 1991. "The Evolution of Professional Fund Raising: 1890-1990", pp. 18-36. In Dwight F. Burlingame, and Lamont J. Hulse, Taking Fund Raising Seriously: Advancing the Profession and Practice of Raising Money. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Nonprofit Sector Series.
National Charities Information Bureau (NCIB) (formerly National Information Bureau), quarterly publications include Standards in Philanthropy and Wise Giving Guide. New York.
National Council on Philanthropy (in 1980 merged with the Coalition of National Voluntary Organizations to create Independent Sector in Washington, D.C.). See its various publications.
National Society of Fund-Raising Executives (NSFRE) (formerly the National Society of Fund Raisers), quarterly NSFRE Journal. Alexandria, VA.
Seymour, H. J., 1966. Designs for Fund-Raising. Rockville, MD: Taft Group.
FUTURES ANALYSIS. The methods used to establish, identify, and review alternative directions for public and private policy choices in the light of possible futures. When people think about the future, search for patterns in the past that predict new directions, or set out their expectations for tomorrow, they are engaged in "future analysis." Every culture depends for its growth and development on a capacity to analyze trends, patterns, hopes, expectations, and even dreams to establish "the possible."