"safeguards" allowing import restrictions for specific industrial sectors. Moreover, negotiations failed to codify trade in the service sector and constraints affecting Less- Developed Countries (LDCs).
The Uruguay round extended multilateral consensus in treating new forms of protectionism. Achievements included average tariff cuts of 38 percent in developed countries, improved market access for agricultural products, and the phasing out of textile quotas. Outline agreement was obtained on rules governing services, particularly finance and telecommunications, which account for some 20 percent of world trade. In addition, measures establishing stronger rules and procedures for dispute settlement emerged from the negotiations.
The final act of the Uruguay round created a new governing body, the World Trade Organization ( WTO), to take over GATT functions. The WTO, which came into operation in 1995, is a permanent trade monitoring body with equal status to the International Monetary Fund ( IMF) and World Bank, and headed by a ministerial conference meeting every two years. A number of recent developments are likely to have significant implications for the effectiveness of the WTO, however. First, domestic political factors have led the United States to include important unilateral withdrawal clauses: a panel to review WTO resolutions and options for Congress and the President to veto legislation. Second, the United States administration has agreed to a congressional vote on continued WTO involvement after five years of membership. And third, all member states retain the right to leave the WTO at six months' notice.
Though the incrementalist approach embodied in the GATT has removed significant barriers to economic market liberalization, further issues confront multilateral trade policy: (1) industrial policy and investment -- An implication of successive GATT negotiations has been a growth in trade and, hence, an increase in interdependence between national economies. A consequence has been that domestic national industrial policies and investment patterns have replaced tariffs as barriers to market access. A prominent issue for future trade negotiations concerns precisely how these barriers can be removed; (2) agriculture and services -- Although the Uruguay round has created new rules in these highly protected areas of world trade, their scope is limited. The importance of services in the global economy is highlighted by the fact that they account for twothirds U.S. gross national product (GNP) ( Spero 1993). Further gains in terms of trade liberalization are likely to be a major preoccupation of future international trade management; and (3) new membership -- Signatories of the GATT have risen from 23 states in 1947 to some 123 states in 1994. A major issue confronting free trade concerns the mechanisms by which new states, particularly China and the countries of the former Soviet Union, are incorporated into future trade negotiations.
In conclusion, as Vincent Cable has pointed out, "The GATT's main priority is to translate its strengthened mandate [since the Uruguay round] into an effective World Trade Organization which can command sufficient confidence in its impartiality and efficiency that it can uphold multilateral rules in the face of powerful protectionist groups and national governments" ( Cable 1994, pp. 26-28).
MATTHEW R. H. UTTLEY
Bhagwati, J., 1991. The World Trading System at Risk. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Cable, Vincent, 1994. "GATT and After", The World Today (February): 26-28.
Gilpin, Robert, 1987. The Political Economy of International Relations. Oxford Princeton University Press.
Robertson, David, 1992. GATT Rules for Emergency Protectionism. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Spero, Joan E., 1993. The Politics of International Economic Relations. London: Routledge.
GENDER POLICY . Policy machinery to ensure that women receive equal benefit from government activity as a whole, as well as specific programs to advance the status of women. The concept of the need for specialized government machinery for this purpose first received widespread acceptance as a result of the International Women's Year ( 1975) and the ensuing United Nations ( UN) Decade for Women. The World Plan of Action adopted for the UN decade placed special emphasis on such government machinery, and more than two-thirds of UN member nations adopted some form of it during this period-it might be a ministry of women's affairs (selfstanding or otherwise), women's bureaus within the bureaucracy, advisory bodies, or independent commissions. By the end of the decade there had been a general shift from reliance on advisory bodies to the creation of government units among 137 reporting countries ( BAW 1987).
Women's ministries or bureaus took responsibility for special programs to advance the status of women. More importantly, they institutionalized the feminist insight that no government activity is likely to be gender neutral, given the different location of women and men in the workforce and in the family. In order to ensure women received equal benefit from government policy, women's bureaus were to ensure that all government policy was monitored and all government activity was audited for genderspecific effects.