|21.||Handles such as those used on cranks and large screwdrivers should be designed to permit as much of the surface of the hand to come in contact with the handle as possible. This is particularly true when considerable force is exerted to use the handle. For light assembly work, the screwdriver handle should be so shaped that it is smaller at the bottom than at the top.|
|22.||Levers, crossbars, and handwheels should be located in such positions that the operator can manipulate them with the least change in body position and with the greatest mechanical advantage.|
Works by the Gilbreths
Gilbreth. Frank B., 1908. Concrete System. New York: Engineering News Publishing.
-----, 1908. Field System. New York: Myron C. Clark.
-----, 1908. Concrete System. New York: Engineering News Publishing Co.
-----, 1909. Brick Laying System. New York: Myron C. Clark.
-----, 1911. Motion Study. New York: D. Van Nostrand.
Gilbreth, Frank B., and Lillian E. M. Gilbreth, 1912. Primer of Scientific Management. New York: D. Van Nostrand.
-----, 1916. Fatigue Study. New York: Sturgis and Walton.
-----, 1917. Applied Motion Study. New York: Sturgis and Walton.
-----, 1920. Motion Study for the Handicapped. New York: Macmillan.
Gilbreth, Lillian E. M., 1912. Psychology of Management. New York: Macmillan.
Gilbreth, Lillian E. M., and Edna Yost, 1928. Living with Our Children. New York: Norton.
Gilbreth, Lillian E. M., and Alice Rice Cook, 1947. The Foreman and Manpower Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Gilbreth, Lillian E. M., O. M. Thomas, and Eleanor C. Clymer, 1954. Management in the Home. New York: Dodd.
Works About Lillian Gilbreth
California Monthly, 1994. "Lillian Moller Gilbreth: A Profile". (June): 20-21.
Graham, Laurel D., 1994. "Critical Biography Without Subjects and Objects: An Encounter with Dr. Lillian Moller Gilbreth". Sociological Quarterly, vol. 35, no. 4: 621-643.
Other Related Works Heyel, Carl, ed., 1982. The Encyclopedia of Management. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
GLASS CEILING . A term used to describe subtle (almost invisible) barriers that women and minorities face as they try to move up the career ladder in organizations. The term was popularized in the 1980s and applied to women. Later, it was acknowledged that minorities also may face elusive barriers in advancement as well. Often it is said that a glass ceiling exists when women and minorities can see the top of a career ladder, but bump their heads against an invisible obstacle when they try to climb it.
Overt discrimination in employment against women and minorities has been unlawful in the United States since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and in the past three decades women and minorities have made significant strides in gaining employment in both the private and public sectors (see discrimination, gender and discrimination, racial). However, these gains have largely been in entry-level positions and nonminority men continue to hold the vast majority of top level jobs. For example, in its report on the Glass Ceiling Initiative released in 1991, the Department of Labor (DOL) noted that in 94 Fortune 1,000-sized companies it reviewed, women held 37 percent and minorities held nearly 16 percent of jobs. However, in these same companies, less than 7 percent of executives were women and less than 3 percent were minorities. In the federal civil service, 47 percent of jobs are held by woman and 27 percent by minorities. But less than 12 percent of senior executives are women and less than 8 percent are minorities. Similar patterns can be found in most state and local governments, where nonminority men are nearly two-thirds of "officials and administrators."
It is the combination of these two factors -- the elimination of most forms of overt discrimination and the increased representation of women and minorities in lowerlevel jobs -- that has focused attention on the glass ceiling. If most overt discrimination has been eliminated, but women and minorities do not enjoy the same opportunities for advancement as equally qualified nonminority men, the assumption is that there are more subtle barriers that are standing in their way. These barriers may not take the form of discriminatory practices that can be addressed through litigation, but are a powerful force nonetheless.
Because, by definition, the glass ceiling is invisible, it is not always easy to identify. However, research has been able to identify some aspects of organizational culture, attitudes, and stereotypes that have the effect of deterring the vertical progress of women and minorities.
For example, in its analysis of the glass ceiling as it affects women in federal employment, the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) found that there is a common expectation in government agencies that those