|•||the crisis of agreement among the "best and the brightest," based on a cohesiveness resting on high selfesteem as well as mutual regard, and with a confidence about future employment or life-chances. This seems to characterize most of those involved in Kennedy's Cuban missile crisis (e.g., Halberstam 1969).|
|•||the crisis of agreement resting on an authoritarian cohesiveness based on seeing outsiders as "enemies" in a state of "war," with low self-esteem and fear dominating among members-fear not only concerning "enemies" but perhaps especially fear of losing their jobs, reinforced by low confidence about similar placements should that happen. This seems to have been the dominant case among Watergate Nixonians (e.g., Raven 1974).|
|•||the crisis of agreement existing among persons having strong affective ties that are expected to continue, as in a family or a "close" work unit (e.g., Harvey 1988).|
These three types differ in important ways. Thus, fear of exclusion because of expressing deviant opinions exists in all three cases, but is clearly apparent in the second. Moreover, conformity will exist in all cases, but the temptation will be strongest in the second type. Relatedly, different interventions seem appropriate for each of the three types of crises of agreement.
ROBERT T. GOLEMBIEWSKI
Golembiewski, Robert T., 1962. The Small Group. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Halberstam, David, 1969. The Best and the Brightest. New York: Random House.
Harvey, Jerry B., 1988. "The Abilene Paradox: The Management of Agreement". Organizational Dynamics, vol. 17 (Summer): 17-34.
Janis, Irving L., 1972. Victims of Groupthink: A Psychological Study of Foreign-Policy Decisions and Fiascoes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Raven, Bertram, 1974. "The Nixon Group". Journal of Social Issues, vol. 30, no 2: 297-330.
Strachey, James, ed., 1955. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. London: Hogarth.
Zander, Alvin, 1994, 1982. Making Groups Effective. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
GRUNDGESETZ (GG) (BASIC LAW). The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany. Originally only applicable to West Germany, since the reunification of East and West Germany on 3 October 1990, it has become the normative basic order for government and society throughout Germany.
The Grundgesetz should be seen as an example of Western type constitutions. Accordingly, it presents the components and features of a modern constitution: It safeguards the freedom of the citizens by basic rights, determines the basic structure of both governmental and social order, regulates the governmental organization, and creates the different governmental organs-providing each of these with special competences. As a constitutional law its provisions have priority over other laws, that is, it enjoys the .supremacy of constitution."
The Grundgesetz asserts itself against the standards of ordinary law and has a radiating effect on the interpretation of ordinary law sentences, thus serving the vertical integration of law. For the special protection and the enforcement of the Constitution, it has its own Constitutional Court, which also holds the right of judicially reviewing laws for their conformance with the Constitution.