International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

BIBLIOGRAPHY

DeCenzo, David A., and Stephen P. Robbins, 1988. Personnel/Human Resource Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Hyde, Albert C., 1995. "Total Quality Management: A Personnel Perspective". In Steven W. Hays and Richard C. Kearney , Public Personnel Management: Problems and Prospects, pp. 306-318. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Klingner, Donald E., 1995. "Strategic Human Resource Management". In Jack Rabin, et al., Handbook of Public Personnel Administration, pp. 633-659. New York: Marcel Dekker.

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING. One element of an overall human resource management system that is designed to insure that the organization acquires the necessary human resources from its external environment at the proper time to allow the organization to accomplish its objectives. It may also be designed to allow an organization to cutback on its human resources in an orderly systematic way. A good human resource planning system will take the organization's objectives and translate them into the proper number and quality of people needed to attain those objectives.

Planning has historically been a luxury in government service. It was considered something desirable, but little long-term planning was done because day-to-day demands forced attention to immediate concerns. Long-term planning in government was made difficult, given the constant changeover of political administrations, with short-term rather than long-term achievements receiving highest priority. Political decisionmaking yardsticks often demanded that attention be paid to the immediate consequences, with the long-term consequences being left for later administrations.

In recent decades, because of decreasing revenues and increasing public demands, strategic planning has become more important in government service. Strategic planning requires organizations and their subunits to establish missions, goals, and objectives. They are required to establish priorities among those goals, and determine the positive and negative factors in their external environments relevant to achieving these goals. The availability of human resources is a critical component necessary for achieving organizational goals, and human resource planning is therefore a vital part of the overall strategic planning process.

Given the financial constraints governmental systems are facing worldwide, reductions-in-force (RIFs), or cutbacks in human resources, have become more common in governmental service. Departments of human resource management have been called upon to develop strategic plans, with layoff options available for decisionmakers.

One tool commonly used in human resource planning is a profile of the current status of people-skills within the organization-a skills inventory. Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) are computerized programs designed to allow easy storage and easy access to skills inventories. Once this information is available, links must be made between current employee skills and promotional expectations and the current and expected future status of position vacancies and potential skills shortages within the organization. Other tools necessary for meaningful human resource planning include job analysis and career planning systems. Job analysis information can help provide links between employee skills and job knowledge, skills, and abilities. Career planning systems can begin to make links between the expectations and desires of individual employees and the future needs anticipated by the organization.

Thus, what in the past was a very low priority, informal process has now become a more formalized, complex process that is important in helping citizens and elected officials answer complicated questions about the role of government. More and more, as these questions are answered in the direction of less government, planning for cutback management and RIFs have become common.

ROBERT H. ELLIOTT


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cayer, N. Joseph, 1995. Public Personnel Administration in the United States. 3d. ed. New York: St. Martin's Press.

DeCenzo, David A., and Stephen P. Robbins, 1988. Personnel/Human Resource Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Johnston, William, 1988. Civil Service 2000. Washington, DC: GPO, Hudson Institute.

Shafritz, Jay, Norma M. Riccucci, David H. Rosenbloom, and Albert C. Hyde, 1992. Personnel Management in Government. 4th ed. New York: Marcel Dekker.

HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION. An official body established for the purpose of protecting and providing for the enforcement of human rights as defined in human rights law.

Human rights commissions exist at international, national, and subnational levels. At the international level, the relevant law is found in international treaties, covenants, or conventions; at the national level, in national human rights acts; and at the subnational level, in special state or provincial human rights legislation. It was only after World War II that commissions came into existence, reflecting a determined global effort to raise standards on human rights not present before or during the war.

At the international level, a leading body is the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Established in 1946 by the UN Economic and Social Council, its general

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International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
Table of contents

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