Bennet, Scott, 1989. Aborigines and Political Power. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
Deloria, Vine, 1985. American Indian Policy in the Twentieth Century. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
Denoon, Donald, 1983. Settler Capitalism: The Dynamics of Dependent Development in the Southern Hemisphere. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fleras, Augie, and Jean Leonard Elliott, 1992. The Nations Within: Aboriginal-State Relations in Canada, the United States, and New Zealand. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
Sharp, Andrew, 1990. Justice and the Maori: Maori Claims in New Zealand Political Argument in the 1980s. Auckland: Oxford University Press.
Tully, James, 1995. Strange Multiplicity: Constitutionalism in an Age of Diversity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wolf, E. R., 1982. Europe and the People Without History. Berkeley: University of California Press.INDONESIAN ADMINISTRATIVE TRADITION. A complex and comprehensive body of customs, values, attitudes, beliefs, and thoughts that reflects influences from indigenous Indonesian (especially Javanese) cultures, from colonial legacies, and from the political and administrative needs of the present "New Order" government.
|1.||The Indonesian public administration is influenced by
traditional Javanese concepts of power and conflict solution like "rukum" (the harmonious state of the society), "musyawarah" (discussion aimed at reaching a
consensus), "mufakaat" (social consensus based on
mutual concessions), and "gotong royong" (mutual assistance). Consensus, harmony, cooperation, social
equilibrium, respect for the hierarchy and for the superiors who have to provide leadership and who monopolize the decision-making authority feature prominently in the working culture of the administration,
and influence their internal working mechanisms.|
The concept of centralization of power is one of the dominant characteristics, and supports a highly centralized and paternalistic bureaucracy with a preference for a top-down decision-making system ( MacAndrews, 1986). Centralization of power can be seen in an administrative line of command running from the president, as chief executive, to the lowest level of state administration. The governors and mayors act in their regions as direct representatives of the president.
|2.||Patrimonial attitudes of the administration have been strengthened by the "indirect rule" pattern of the Dutch colonial administration, which neglected local initiative and local decision-making and stressed centralization ( Devas, 1989). By relying on the indigenous power elite, the "priyayi," the Dutch colonial administration perpetuated the position of the "priyayi" as the most influential indigenous group of the society, which remained in command of the administrative system.|
|3.||Indonesia is characterized by a huge diversity of ethnic groups, languages and cultures, distribution of population and of natural resources, religions, and geographical and ecological conditions. This diversity is reflected in the official state motto "Bhineka Tunggal Ika" (meaning "Unity in Diversity"). One of the most important objectives in the struggle for independence ( 1945-1949) and the first two decades of the republic|