International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview
ministration. These local communities are often dependent on higher levels of government for policy, funding, and fiscal accountability, and therefore they have extremely limited autonomy.Major contemporary public affairs, such as land rights, health, education, and rights to decide priorities and determine their implementation, are matters for negotiated settlement between indigenous people's representatives and governments. On the whole, management of these affairs is in the hands of state-territory-province and national governments. Arenas of extensive, extralocal indigenous control have also been built or strengthened since the 1970s. The direct political action of that period has largely been replaced by political negotiation and use of the courts. Indigenous land rights again became a central feature of relations with governments and a vehicle for the pursuit of greater political autonomy by indigenous people. The establishment of the Waitangi Tribunal in New Zealand in 1975, and the Northern Territory Land Rights Commission in Australia in 1973, were significant developments on this path. In Australia, the Mabo decision in 1992 and the subsequent Native Title Act of 1993, have placed the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in a position closer to that enjoyed by the indigenous people of Canada, New Zealand, and the United States in the negotiation of land claims.Self-determination focuses attention on empowering indigenous people. Sovereignty, albeit limited, is implied in native people's acceptance that the setting of agendas, development of policies, and control of their implementation are the right of indigenous people. Issues of selfgovernment are today central to relations between governments and the indigenous people in their jurisdictions. JOHN BERN
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bennet, Scott, 1989. Aborigines and Political Power. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.

Deloria, Vine, 1985. American Indian Policy in the Twentieth Century. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Denoon, Donald, 1983. Settler Capitalism: The Dynamics of Dependent Development in the Southern Hemisphere. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fleras, Augie, and Jean Leonard Elliott, 1992. The Nations Within: Aboriginal-State Relations in Canada, the United States, and New Zealand. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

Sharp, Andrew, 1990. Justice and the Maori: Maori Claims in New Zealand Political Argument in the 1980s. Auckland: Oxford University Press.

Tully, James, 1995. Strange Multiplicity: Constitutionalism in an Age of Diversity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wolf, E. R., 1982. Europe and the People Without History. Berkeley: University of California Press.

INDONESIAN ADMINISTRATIVE TRADITION. A complex and comprehensive body of customs, values, attitudes, beliefs, and thoughts that reflects influences from indigenous Indonesian (especially Javanese) cultures, from colonial legacies, and from the political and administrative needs of the present "New Order" government.
The Cultural and Political Tradition
Four major factors shape the perception of the role and working mechanisms of the adminstrative system:
1. The Indonesian public administration is influenced by traditional Javanese concepts of power and conflict solution like "rukum" (the harmonious state of the society), "musyawarah" (discussion aimed at reaching a consensus), "mufakaat" (social consensus based on mutual concessions), and "gotong royong" (mutual assistance). Consensus, harmony, cooperation, social equilibrium, respect for the hierarchy and for the superiors who have to provide leadership and who monopolize the decision-making authority feature prominently in the working culture of the administration, and influence their internal working mechanisms.

The concept of centralization of power is one of the dominant characteristics, and supports a highly centralized and paternalistic bureaucracy with a preference for a top-down decision-making system ( MacAndrews, 1986). Centralization of power can be seen in an administrative line of command running from the president, as chief executive, to the lowest level of state administration. The governors and mayors act in their regions as direct representatives of the president.

2. Patrimonial attitudes of the administration have been strengthened by the "indirect rule" pattern of the Dutch colonial administration, which neglected local initiative and local decision-making and stressed centralization ( Devas, 1989). By relying on the indigenous power elite, the "priyayi," the Dutch colonial administration perpetuated the position of the "priyayi" as the most influential indigenous group of the society, which remained in command of the administrative system.
3. Indonesia is characterized by a huge diversity of ethnic groups, languages and cultures, distribution of population and of natural resources, religions, and geographical and ecological conditions. This diversity is reflected in the official state motto "Bhineka Tunggal Ika" (meaning "Unity in Diversity"). One of the most important objectives in the struggle for independence ( 1945-1949) and the first two decades of the republic

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International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
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