general's undertakings was unreasonably refused or not provided.
The inspector general also is required to report immediately to the agency head any serious or flagrant problems related to program abuse or deficiencies. Within seven days, the agency head is required to submit the report, along with a report by the agency head if desired, to the appropriate committees or subcommittees of Congress.
The Inspector General Act requires the inspectors general to coordinate, cooperate, and avoid duplication with the comptroller general, the head of the General Accounting Office. The inspectors general must comply with audit standards established by he comptroller general for audits of federal programs and ensure that any work performed for the inspector general by non-inspector general auditors also comply with the standards.
When the office of inspector general has reasonable grounds to believe that federal criminal laws have been violated, the inspector general is required to make a report to the attorney general. The inspectors general are allowed to approach the Department of Justice directly without going through the agency's own general counsel's office.
To facilitate coordination and information sharing among the inspectors general in different agencies, the President's Council on Integrity and Efficiency ( PCIE) was established by President Reagan in 1981 through presidential executive order. All of the statutory inspectors general created in the original act, as well as in subsequent legislation, who are appointed by the president are members of the council. The Executive Council on Integrity and Efficiency ( ECIE), which was created by a later presidential executive order, consists of the remaining inspectors general who are not appointed by the president. Non-inspector general members of each of the councils include representatives from the Office of Management and Budget, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Office of Government Ethics, and the Office of Special Counsel. The deputy director for management of the Office Management and Budget is the chair of both councils. The vice chair of each of the councils has a position on the other entity's council.
The members of the PCIE and the ECIE work on an interagency basis to promote economy and efficiency. They undertake joint projects and work on audit and investigation issues that cut across more than one agency.
One of the first statewide offices of the inspector general in the country was established in Massachusetts in 1981. Like its federal counterparts, the goal of this office is to prevent and detect fraud, waste, and abuse in government. The office employs a staff consisting of investigators, lawyers, management analysts, and an engineer. The office has the authority to subpoena records and people and to investigate criminal and noncriminal violations of laws.
Various other states also have a statewide office of inspector general or an inspector general that addresses specific functions or programs. Local governments also can have an office that functions similarly to that of an inspector general even through the office may have a different title.
BEVERLY S. BUNCH
Fountain, L. H., 1979. "What Congress Expects from the New Inspectors General". Government Accountants Journal, vol. 28 (Spring) 8-12.
Inspector GeneralAct of 1978, 1978. Public Law 95-452, 95th Congress, October 12.
Light, Paul C., 1993. Monitoring Government: Inspectors General and the Search for Accountability. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution and Governance Institute.
Moore, Mark H., and Margaret Jane Gates, 1986. InspectorsGeneral: Junkyard Dogs or Man's Best Friend? New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (IPA) OF SAUDI ARABIA. An autonomous corporate body, established by Royal Decree on April 9, 1961, to promote and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of government agencies and to provide qualified human resources to contribute to the performance of government.
In the late 1950s, the government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia realized that while its agencies were lacking efficiency and effectiveness, there was a major deficiency in qualified, skillful, and trained nationals that could run the government. To overcome the problem, the government sought external help from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Technical Assistance Committee of the United Nations, and the Ford Foundation. The foreign experts conducted several studies that resulted in major recommendations, one of which was establishing the Institute of Public Administration. On April 9, 1961, the IPA was established by Royal Decree No. 93 as an autonomous corporate body with the aim of promoting and improving the efficiency and effectiveness of government agencies, and preparing and providing qualified and skillful human resources that could contribute to the performance of government.
To accomplish its general goal, the IPA has been working on four dimensions: training, research, consultations