by a foreign power, in fact to the point of being directed by it, have been the intelligence agencies in communist countries under the influence of the Soviet Union. For example, the KGB dominated Bulgaria's Darjavna Sugurnost and used it as a Soviet surrogate.
The ending of the Cold War has changed the picture. The Russian Intelligence Service has inherited some of the goals and methods of the KGB but is no longer so vigorously involved in crimes against its own citizens and in imperialism abroad. Communist China's Central External Liaison Department is efficient but is not treated as a serious threat to the West. Even in the Cold War, some intelligence agencies-for example, Britain's MI6, Israel's MOSSAD, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, and smaller-scale organizations in nonaligned countrieshad striven to maintain their independence from the American and Soviet superpowers. The demise of superpower rivalry removed the compulsion to take sides. But it raised fears of unchallenged United States intelligence dominance. In 1991, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted a Fact-Finding Declaration mandating the secretary-general to "monitor the state of international peace and security regularly and systematically in order to provide early warning of disputes or situations which might threaten international peace and security." This reflected an international desire that the world's decisionmakers should be informed impartially about impending and current crises.
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Andrew, Christopher, and Oleg Gordievsky, 1990. KGB: The Inside Story of Its Foreign Operations from Lenin to Gorbachev. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
Dvornick, Francis, 1974. Origins of Intelligence Services. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press.
Fergusson, Thomas G., 1984. British Militaly Intelligence, 1870- 1914: The Development of a Modern Intelligence Organization. London: Arms and Armour Press.
Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri, 1977. American Espionage: From Secret Service to CIA. New York: Free Press.
Kirkpatrick, Lyman B., 1975. The U.S. Intelligence Community: Foreign Policy and Domestic Activities. New York: Hill & Wang.
Laqueur, Walter, 1988. A World Secrets: The Uses and Limits of Intelligence. New York: Basic Books.
Rowan, Richard Wilmer, 1938. The Story of Secret Service. London: John Miles.
Whitnah, Donald R., ed., 1983. Government Agencies. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Essays on the CIA, FBI, and U.S. Secret Service.
INTELLIGENCE POLICY. The direction of activities designed to obtain information, by secret as well as overt means, that will help the intelligence tasker to make wise decisions; the philosophy behind the shaping of an intelligence community's bureaucratic structure; and a government's formal response to problems arising from intelligence activities, including the problems of civil liberties, open government, and legislative oversight.
The origins of intelligence policy stretch back to the beginnings of the human species. When hunters learned the value of scouting and adopted the practice as a matter of policy, they appreciated the equation between information and power, beginning with the power to survive. Successful monarchs exploited the same equation and had a policy of seeking information, often by clandestine means, on their internal and external foes, and about their intended victims. The generals in charge of their armies sought strategic intelligence that would help them win wars and tactical intelligence that would assist them in particular battles.
Exploration is an aspect of intelligence policy that also has a long history. China, for example under the emperor Wu Ti (140-86 B.C.E.), undertook exploration in pursuit of empire and trade; the China sought out the peoples of the Asian interior long before Marco Polo left Venice in 1271 to "discover" Asia and China, and even longer before the Genoan Christopher Columbus set foot in the New World ( 1492) believing it to be the "Indies." Nevertheless, particular peoples' ignorance of other parts of the globe persisted and with it the urge to explore. In 1803, for example, President Thomas Jefferson dispatched the Lewis and Clark expedition to the area that is now the northwestern United States, accumulating data that helped to make the USA a continental nation. Ameringer ( 1990) is a historian who treats this expedition and the establishment of the Army Corps of Topographical Engineers in 1838 as a part of United States intelligence history.
Exploration might not at first sight seem to be an aspect of intelligence policy in that it is often openly conducted and proclaimed. But the word "intelligence" denoted publicly available information in the eighteenth century, and it is still an axiom of good intelligence policy that open as well as secret sources should be used. Furthermore, the sponsors of exploration, for example, the monarchs who financed Spain's search for gold in the sixteenth century and the United States government, which launched the "Discoverer" satellites to spy on the Soviet Union, have not always rushed to share their findings with the world at large. The appropriation of exploration as an aspect of intelligence policy is in part an attempt to confer respectability on a despised profession, yet it is also fairly logical.
In spite of the tendency of Americans to perceive themselves as pragmatic and even anti-intellectual, theories on intelligence have abounded in the United States -- more so than in other nations, where espionage and intelligence policy only slowly emerged from the closet and could not therefore attract open debate and scholarly discussion. At