own goals, procedures, services, and timeframes. In the words of the regional social service manager, a "whole new way of thinking was required" to being the different agencies and organizations into unified action. Once acceptance of joint action was achieved, more formal mechanisms of articulation were established. These included shared progress reports, regular joint meetings, memoranda of agreement, and contracts which specified services to be provided to the welfare recipients.
This example highlights one of the most typical forms of intergovernmental management-the integration of services provided by several separate organizations. Ensuring that different entities work together means overcoming the natural tendency of organizations to protect their turf. This requires the development of joint action and shared responsibility, not just at the local service delivery level but also at higher management levels.
The "M" in IGM gives both symbolic and operational significance to management (and administration) in the larger arenas of politics, policymaking, and governance in its broadest sense. It expresses in a different manner what one United States senator posed as a question to the American Municipal Congress in the early days of the shift toward shared responsibility. "How do we make sure that the powers of government [will] continue to be diffused while at the same time the chores of government are effectively performed?" ( Muskie 1961). The "M" also captures the larger political and social significance of a phenomenon that Carl Friedrich ( 1950), an intellectual leader of political science, identified several decades ago. "Bureaucracy," which to Friedrich included administration and management, "is the core of modern government" (p. 37).
DEIL S. WRIGHT AND DALE KRANE
Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, 1977. Improving Federal Grants Management. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
Agranoff, Robert J., 1986. Intergovernmental Management. Human Services Problem Solving in Six Metropolitan Areas. Albany: State University of New York Press.
-----, 1989. "Managing Intergovernmental Processes." In James L. Perry, ed., Handbook of Public Administration. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 131-147.
-----, 1990a. "Managing Federalism through Metropolitan Human Services Intergovernmental Bodies". Publius: The Journal of Federalism, vol. 20: 1-22.
-----, 1990b. "Responding to Human Crises: Intergovernmental Policy Networks." In Robert W. Gage and Myrna P. Mandell , eds., Strategies for Managing Intergovernmental Policies and Networks. New York: Praeger, 57-80.
Agranoff, Robert, and Valerie A. Lindsay, 1983. "Intergovernmental Management: Perspectives from Human Services Problem Solving at the Local Level". Public Administration Review, vol. 43: 227-237.
Alter, Catherine, and Jerald Hage, 1993. Organizations Working Together. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
American Society for Public Administration, 1979. Strengthening Intergovernmental Management: An Agenda for Reform. Washington, DC: American Society for Public Administration.
Beaumont, Enid F., 1994. "Domestic Consequences of Internationalization: Emerging Conflicts". The Annals, vol. 509 (May) 9-152. Paper presented at a conference on centralization and decentralization in Japan and the United States. Sponsored by the National Institute for Research Advancement ( Tokyo) and the National Academy of Public Administration ( Washington), Georgetown University, Washington, DC.
Beer, Samuel H., 1978. "Federalism, Nationalism, and Democracy in America". American Political Science Review, vol. 72: 9-21.
Clayton, Ross, Patrick Conklin, and Raymond Shapek, eds., 1975. "Policy Management Assistance: A Developing Dialog". Special issue of Public Administration Review, vol. 35.
Conlan, Timothy J., 1987. "Federalism and Competing Values in the Reagan Administration". Publius: The Journal of Fiederalism, vol. 16: 29-48.
-----, 1988. New Federalism: Intergovernmental Reform from Nixon to Reagan. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Duchacek, Ivo D., Daniel Latouche, and Garth Stevenson, eds., 1988. Perforated Sovereignties and International Relations: TransSovereign Contacts of Subnational Governments. New York: Greenwood.
Elazar, Daniel J., 1981. "Is Federalism Compatible with Prefectorial Administration"? Publius: The Journal of Federalism, vol. 11:3-22.
Executive Office of the President, 1975. Strengthening Public Management in the Intergovernmental System. Report prepared for Office of Management and Budget by the Study Committee on Policy Management Assistance. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, 1980. Managing Federal Assistance in the 1980's. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
Farber, Stephen B., 1983. "The 1982 New Federalism Negotiations: A View from the States". Publius: The Journal of Federalism, vol. 13: 33-38.
Friedrich, Carl J., 1950. Constitutional Government and Democracy. New York: Ginn.
Gage, Robert W., and Myrna P. Mandell, eds., 1990. Strategies for Managing Intergovernmental Policies and Networks. New York: Praeger.
Gordon, George J., 1980. "Managing Leviathan: The Intergovernmental Management Agenda for 1980". Publius: The Journal Federalism, vol. 10: 137-144.
Grosenick, Leigh E., ed., 1973. The Administration of the New Federalism: Objectives and Issues. Washington, DC: American Society of Public Administration.
Hays, Samuel P., 1991. "Three Decades of Environmental Politics: The Historical Context." In Michael J. Lacey, ed., Government and Environmental Politics: Essays on Historical Developments Since World War Two. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Jennings, Edward T., Jr., and Dale Krane, 1994. "Coordination and Welfare Reform: The Quest for the Philosopher's Stone". Public Administration Review, vol. 54: 341-348.
Johnson, Gerald W., and John G. Heilman, 1987. "Metapolicy Transition and Policy Implementation: New Federalism and Privatization". Public Administration Review, vol. 47: 468-478.
Jones, Ben, 1994. "Free Trade and State Sovereignty". Spectrum: The Journal of State Government, vol. 67: 37-43.
Kincaid, John, 1990. "From Cooperative to Coercive Federalism". The Annals, vol. 509 (May) 139-152.