leader of the city with an important role as the representative of the city in intergovernmental relations and as the city's advocate in promoting the city's interests with the private sector.
Approximately 3,000 places have been recognized by ICMA as meeting its criteria as "council-manager local governments," which place in the manager full managerial powers over appointment of employees and preparation of the budget. The council-manager plan's emphasis on professional city management has been extended, however, to another 1,400 places that are recognized by ICMA as "general management local governments." These include places where professional managers are appointed by the governing body or by the elected chief executive (mayor or county executive) but do not have the clear-cut authority associated with the manager in the council-manager plan.
The council-manager plan and professional local government management offer significant benefits to cities in addition to professional values and standards. They include executive budgeting, long-range policy planning, stronger financial management, and a stronger role for the city council that blends policy and administration to meet the dynamic needs of a changing society.
ICMA membership includes approximately 700 persons in Canada, Australia, and 23 other nations. Many of these persons serve as chief administrators in local governments or hold other significant management positions.
During the first four decades of the council-manager plan, the managers were largely trained as engineers and brought an "operations manager" point of view to the city government that was well suited for the times. This began to change after World War II as managers became more professional, more cosmopolitan, and more externally oriented to their communities and to other governments. From the 1970s on, managers have moved to focusing on policy concerns and working directly with the city council.
These and other changes since the early 1900s can be summarized as follows: (1) Managers' working environments have broadened to include social, demographic, and economic issues that demand expertise in public policy formulation. (2) Educational backgrounds of managers have shifted sharply from engineering to public administration. (3) Educational levels have advanced from the bachelor's degree to the master's degree, usually in public administration. (4) The managers' responsibilities have grown to encompass community leadership and a policy role in a governance setting that includes the private and nonprofit sectors as well as the local government. "Today's city manager . . . spends substantially less time on administration in the conventional sense than did his or her predecessors" ( Arnold and Plant 1994, p. 193).
In the complex urban world of the late twentieth century, local governments whether evaluated by day-to-day operations, community meetings, negotiations for a baseball stadium or revenue options to be considered by the city council demand the specialized knowledge and information provided by professional managers. Their work with city councils increases the effectiveness of both the political and administrative sides of local government.
DAVID S. ARNOLD
The International City/County Management Association publishes manuals and guides on a continuing basis on the council-manager plan, the management profession, and the work of local government governing bodies. [ICMA, 777 North Capitol Street NE, #500, Washington DC 20002- 4201.]
Arnold, David S., and Jeremy F. Plant, 1994. Public Official Associations and State and Local Government: A Bridge Across One Hundred Years. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University Press.
Frederickson, H. George, ed., 1989. Ideal and Practice in CouncilManager Government. Washington, DC: International City/County Management Association.
Green, Roy E., 1989. The Profession of Local Government Management: Management Expertise and the American Community. New York: Praeger.
Nalbandian, John, 1991. Professionalism in Local Government: Transformations in the Roles, Responsibilities, and Values of City Managers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
National Civic League, 1989. Handbook for Council Members in Council-Manager Cities, 4th ed. Denver, CO.
-----, 1989. Model City Charter, 7th ed.
-----, 1990. Model County Charter, rev. ed.
Newell, Charldean, ed., 1993. The Effective Local Government Manager, 2d ed. Washington, DC: International City/County Management Association.
Stillman, Richard J., II., 1974. The Rise of the City Manager: A Public Professional in Local Government. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Svara, James H., 1990. Official Leadership in the City: Patterns of Conflict and Cooperation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Svara, James H. and Associates, 1994. Facilitative Leadership in Local Government. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES. A nongovernmental international organization, consisting of many states and organizations, set up to study and improve public administration around the globe.
The International Institute of Administrative Sciences is a nongovernmental organization that is competent in the study and improvement of public administration. It was established in 1930 and has its headquarters in Brussels. It works with about 100 countries and international organizations in all the regions of the world. It includes three fully integrated specialized or regional associations: