International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview
ucational attainment, and employment history. The selection test is normally used to measure achieved levels of jobrelated knowledge and abilities. The interview then is used primarily to double-check information, to evaluate the candidate's interpersonal skills, communication skills, and the degree to which the candidate will work well with others in the organizational unit-organizational fit. It is also used to present the candidate with a positive image of the organization.Fear of litigation and the complexity of validating tests have led many organizations in the United States to rely more heavily on the interview as the primary selection method. This may not be a wise course of action since the interview is technically no different than a written test in terms of its legal job-relatedness requirements.Research on the accuracy and validity of the oral interview as a part of the selection process is at best "mixed," and it clearly has some substantial problems with biased results. Employers should be very careful when relying heavily on the interview process due to demonstrated interviewer bias as a result of prior knowledge about the applicant; that is, prior knowledge of factors such as sex, physical attractiveness, and age will predispose an interview into certain stereotypical anticipations. Other problems with interviews include such factors as interviewers tending to favor applicants who share their attitudes, the order in which the interviews take place influencing the results (contrast effects), and poor interviewer recall of information serving as a source of bias.Before organizations rely too heavily on the oral interview as a selection device they should be willing to take certain steps to minimize bias in the interviewing process. Steps that organizations can take to enhance the accuracy of interview information include the following:
1. . use structured interviews and certify that the interviewer follows a set procedure;
2. . affirm that the interviewers are properly educated regarding the potential interview bias factors and are trained regarding structure and procedure and notetaking for later accurate recall of information;
1. . ensure that the interviewers are informed about the required knowledge, skills, and abilities of the jobs they are interviewing for;
4. . guarantee that the questions asked are based on jobrelated factors and do not explore personal factors that might be considered discriminatory in nature.

ROBERT H. ELLIOTT


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cascio, Wayne F., 1991. Applied Psychology in Personnel Management, 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

DeCenzo, David A., and Stephen F. Robbins, 1988. Personnel/Human Resource Management, 3d ed., Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Rabin, Jack, Thomas Vocino, W. Bartley Hildreth and Gerald J. Miller , 1995. Handbook of Public Personnel Administration. New York: Marcel Dekker.

ISLAMIC ADMINISTRATIVE TRADITION . The collective doctrine of administrative principles, based on the Holy Qura'an and the teachings of the prophet Mohammed that provide the guidelines for the practice of public administration in the Arab world.

The Islamic administrative tradition cannot be understood without understanding the Islamic principles that relate to the practice of public administration and its practice. Islam is a very comprehensive way of life. Its tenets cover all aspects of life including the principles of managing public affairs. In the Holy Qura'an and the sunnah (Prophet Mohammed-Peace Be upon Him-sayings and teachings), the guidelines for effective and ideal practice of public administration are explicitly stated. They form the doctrine of Islamic public administration. As derived from the Holy Qura'an and the Sunnah, the principles of and guidelines for Islamic public administration are consultation, ethical behavior and decision making, cooperation, justice and equity, equality and merit.


Consultation

Allah ordered his messenger, Prophet Mohammed (Peace Be upon Him-hereafter PBUH), to consult the people prior to making a decision; thus, it is a requirement in Islam for anyone in a leadership position to consult with those one leads and to take their opinion as a basis for the decision to be made. This fundamental Islamic principle is based on the following Qura'anic verses: "It is part of the mercy of Allah that thou dost deal gently with them, wert thou severe or harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from about thee: so pass over (their faults) and ask for (Allah's) forgiveness for them; and consult them in affairs (of moment). Then when thou hast taken a decision, put thy trust in Allah" (3:159) and "Those who respond to their Lord, and establish regular prayer; who (conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation . . ." (42:38). According to these two verses, it is a requirement for leaders to seek the opinion of their followers before any decision is made and it is the right of the people to demand that their input is taken into consideration. This is what is known as participative management in contemporary public administration with the exception that in Islam it is a right, not a privilege.

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International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
Table of contents

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