them. The test the court uses to determine if jurisdiction is appropriate is to determine if the defendant has "minimum contacts" with the state, that is, if there are sufficient activities carried out by the defendant within the state to make it fair for the court to hear the case and render judgment against the defendant ( International Shoe Co. v. State of Washington, 1945).
ROGER L. GOLDMAN
Crowell v. Benson, 285 U.S. 22 ( 1932).
Ex parte McCardle, 74 U.S. 506 ( 1869).
International Shoe Co. v. State of Washington, 326 U.S. 310 ( 1945).
Marbug v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 ( 1803).
Testa v. Katt, 330 U.S. 386 ( 1947).