A work of this sort cannot be attempted without excellent supervision, strong family backing, official cooperation, and a host of friends and acquaintances who are willing to expend some time and inconvenience in facilitating one's research, suggesting ideas, and, most importantly, providing encouragement. I have had all of these and, at the risk of not including persons who may have contributed significantly, wish to express my appreciation here.
From the start, I, had the great privilege of having the extremely able supervision of Dr. B. Hargrove, Q.C., O.B.E., Ph.D. He set high standards, but gave every encouragement that those standards could be met. I deeply appreciate his not giving up on me during some dismal periods in this long process.
My family sacrificed a great deal during this effort, but encouraged and supported me throughout. I can never repay their love and devotion.
It will be seen in the text that official cooperation cannot always be expected. However, there are notable instances where official cooperation went well beyond my requests. I wish to express my thanks to the Scottish Home and Health Department and in particular to Alec Stephen and Tom Melville, who provided me with valuable information and warm hospitality during my visit to Scotland. Similarly, I wish to express my gratitude to the many American prison officials who provided information, answered questionnaires. and allowed me to make prison visits. Even where officials felt duty-bound to withhold complete cooperation, I was treated with every courtesy in both Britain and the United States.
I must express my deep gratitude to Martin Wright, director of the Howard League for Penal Reform and Graham Zellick, professor of Law at Queen Mary College. They have their fingers on the pulse of imprisonment in Britain and have provided me with valuable information and insights.
A number of people were very kind to me during the various stages of this work. My deep thanks to my excellent paralegal assistants Mena Hughes, Dorothy Lewis, Kathy Pankowski, Maryanne Powers-Snead, Mary Starkweather, and Madelyn Szewczyk, who helped me revise and edit the original thesis into book form. My very special thanks to Steve and Lois Taylor, Helen Tynan, and Shirley Liffen for their numerous favors and unfailing encouragement. I am very grateful to my excellent typists Miriam Meconnahey, who typed the final copy, and Lorelei Teulon, who typed much of the intermediate work.