THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE
Smuggling to and from sea was a serious problem in England for many centuries. From the thirteenth century on, growers of wool looked longingly toward France and Holland and Sweden for markets for their surplus produce, whose exportation, however, was forbidden. From the seventeenth century on, the importation of many other articles was either highly taxed or prohibited. Smugglers, as a result, arose in vast hordes both on sea and on land. From the earliest time, drastic action was taken by the English Government to put an end to this illicit trade.
As early as 1678,1 the Board of Customs wrote to the collector of Customs at Stockton-on-Tees:____________________