Revolution and Change in Central and Eastern Europe: Political, Economic, and Social Challenges

By Minton F. Goldman | Go to book overview

4. Yugoslavia

A unique kind of challenge to communist rule occurred in Yugoslavia, starting with political reforms in the late 1980s in the republics of Slovenia and Croatia, where Communist Party leaders had always been somewhat more liberal than those in other Yugoslav republics. Before long, newly elected nationalist- inspired governments in Slovenia and Croatia separated from the Yugoslav state. The independence of Slovenia and Croatia, which helped trigger the independence of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia, precipitated the disintegration of the Titoist state. It also contributed to the outbreak of war in the newly independent republic of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina as the different ethnic groups, now freed of communist control, indulged their historic prejudices and began a campaign of landgrabbing. The most aggressive of these groups turned out to be the Serb minorities who were encouraged by the Serb Republic government of President Slobodan Milošević.


Conclusions

Communist system had been ripe for revolt for many years, with flaws that rendered them inept and hypocritical and deprived them of the popular legitimacy needed to assure their long-term survival. They collapsed in 1989, rather than earlier or later, largely because of the Soviet Union, which under Gorbachev encouraged reform to correct these flaws but then refused to defend them against popular demands for more change and eventually for the complete abandonment of communism and satellization. And, although the West was a catalyst, not a cause, of the collapse of communist systems in Eastern Europe, its role should not be underestimated. Western countries, in particular the United States, had been trying to weaken the East European communist political systems internally and externally for several decades. The West also had succeeded in lulling the Kremlin into a sense of security that helped to encourage a more flexible Soviet approach to the region and eventually to allow change to run its natural course. Moreover, the longer the Kremlin remained passive, the more difficult it became to reverse that behavior--and the West helped to make sure of that.

While the causes of collapse were rather similar throughout the region, the actual process of communist collapse varied from country to country depending on the differences, however subtle from an outsider's point of view, in how the communist system actually worked in each country. In the more highly developed north, namely, in Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia, there were people even within the Communist Party with strong liberal instincts ready to lead a radical and profound shift away from orthodox communist rule. In the Balkans, however, which were less developed politically and economically and lacked the kind of liberal elite found in the northern countries, the collapse was more traumatic and more violent.

-22-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Revolution and Change in Central and Eastern Europe: Political, Economic, and Social Challenges
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Introduction xi
  • 1 - Roots and Causes of Communist Collapse 3
  • Conclusions 22
  • 2 - Problems of Postcommunist Development 23
  • Conclusions 51
  • 3 - Albania 53
  • Conclusions 82
  • 4 - Bulgaria 83
  • Conclusions 111
  • 5 - From Czechoslovakia to the Czech and Slovak Republics 113
  • Conclusions 152
  • 6 - East Germany 155
  • Conclusions 178
  • 7 - Hungary 181
  • Conclusions 216
  • 8 - Poland 219
  • Conclusions 263
  • 9 - Romania 265
  • Conclusions 298
  • 10 - Yugoslavia-----Collapse and Disintegration 299
  • Conclusions 331
  • 11 - Yugoslavia--The Bosnian Civil War 341
  • Conclusions 389
  • Conclusions 391
  • Notes 405
  • Bibliography 453
  • Index 471
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 498

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.