Yugoslavia----- Collapse and Disintegration
Before the present era, there were two Yugoslav states, the constitutional monarchy from 1918 until 1945, and the communist dictatorship from 1945 until 1991.1 In April 1941, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was invaded by Nazi Germany, partitioned, and occupied. During the war, an antifascist resistance organization known as the Partisans fought the Germans. Led by Josip Broz Tito, a Croatian Marxist, the Partisan movement consisted of people of different political beliefs but was always controlled by Marxists. In 1944, as German power in Central Europe collapsed, the Partisans were the dominant military and political force in the country.
Yugoslavia had a patchwork-quilt society made up of large and small Slavic and non-Slavic ethnocultural groups that had very diverse historical backgrounds, levels of economic well-being, and cultural traditions. One can speak of both macro- and microethnic diversity.
Macroethnic diversity refers to five large ethnic groups that had their own administrative units called republics in the post-World War II Yugoslav state: Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia, and Montenegro. In sharp contrast with these republics, Bosnia-Herzegovina had no large majority. Its population con-