ethnicity. More equal opportunities reduce arbitrary environmental differences, thereby highlighting genetic variability.
If we want a developmental theory that accounts for observations about family effects on children, it behooves us to include genetic variation, nonshared environments, and genotype-environment correlations. Evidence shows that family resemblances are due largely to genetic similarity among people born into the same families. Small common environmental effects -- those due to being reared in the same family -- have been found, and they would doubtlessly be larger if very deprived families were included. For most families in North American and European populations, however, environmental differences among them have very small effects on their children's development. If socialization researchers wish to dispute these conclusions, they must test their ideas with informative research designs. Advocacy for social reform cannot be substituted for scientific theory and research. Respect for individual diversity would be a desirable outcome of this debate.
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