Biological and Neuropsychological Mechanisms: Life-Span Developmental Psychology

By Hayne W. Reese; Michael D. Franzen | Go to book overview
5. Although the research conducted to the present time has been useful and suggests important biological mechanisms, soft signs still need to be investigated further for their relationship to early developmental risk factors and broader neuropsychological outcome.
6. A multivariate model using soft signs as infrabehavioral markers holds the most promise for future investigations of the elusive soft signs-minor neurological dysfunction connection.

Discussion and consideration of soft signs touches on concerns regarding the detection and importance of mild degrees of brain pathology that appear to have a subtle but measureable impact on development and functioning. A better understanding of these soft signs--because they are a more exaggerated example of more general difficulties in neurobehavioral measurement and conceptualization--will ultimately help us to better understand brain-behavior relationships in developing children.


REFERENCES

Abercrombie M., Lindon R., & Tyson M. ( 1964). "Associated movements in normal and physically handicapped children". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 6, 573-580.

Adams R., Kocsis J., & Estes R. E. ( 1974). "Soft neurological signs in learning disabled children and controls". American Journal of Diseases of Children, 128, 614-618.

Agarwal K. N., Das D., Agarwal D. K., Upadhyay S. K., & Mishra S. ( 1989). z "Soft neurological signs and EEG pattern in rural malnourished children. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica", 78( 6), 873-878.

Awad A. G. ( 1989). "Drug therapy in schizophrenia--variability of outcome and prediction of response". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 34( 7), 711-720.

Aylward G. P., & Pfeiffer S. I. ( 1991). "Perinatal complications and cognitive/ neuropsychological outcome". In J. W. Gray & R. S. Dean (Eds.), Neuropsychology of perinatal complications (pp. 128-160). New York: Springer.

Barlow C. F. ( 1974). "Soft signs in children with learning disorders". American Journal of Diseases of Children, 128, 605-606.

Bartko G., Frecska E., Zador G., & Herczeg I. ( 1989). "Neurological features, cognitive impairment and neuroleptic response in schizophrenic patients". Schizophrenia Research, 2( 3), 311-313.

Bartko G., Zador G., Horvath S., & Herczeg I. ( 1988). "Neurological soft signs in chronic schizophrenic patients: Clinical correlates". Biological Psychiatry, 24( 4), 458-460.

Bender L. ( 1947). "Childhood schizophrenia: Clinical study of one hundred schizophrenic children". American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 17, 40-56.

Bender L. ( 1956). "Psychopathology of children with organic brain disorders". Springfield, IL: Thomas. Benton A. L. ( 1973). "Minimal brain dysfunction from a neuropsychological point of view". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 205, 29-37.

Berger E., & Berger-Margulies J. ( 1978). "Frequency of minor nervous dysfunction in schoolchildren"

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