data provide evidence against these models and not just the cascade model. In contrast, they support a stage model (Fig. 4.10). This outcome is consistent with the earlier results of Meyer and Irwin ( 1982).
Our procedure can be generalized in certain ways. By changing the nature of the primes, we may learn more about the processing of other stimuli besides words and nonwords. For example, the procedure may eventually tell us how sentences, pictures, and more complex stimuli contribute to response preparation. Similarly, we may adapt the procedure to study the preparation of more complex responses, such as speech and coordinated limb movements. It may even allow us to measure a "true" reaction time, despite what some observers of speed-accuracy tradeoffs have claimed ( Ollman, 1977; Pachella, 1974; Wickelgren , 1977).
Portions of this research were first presented at meetings of the Midwestern Psychological Association ( Yantis, Osman, & Meyer, 1982) and the Psychonomic Society ( Meyer, Osman, & Yantis, 1982). The participation of S. Yantis was supported in part by a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship. The authors thank S. Kornblum for comments, and B. Holcomb, T. Recker, and D. Tang for technical assistance.
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