Psychological and Biological Approaches to Emotion

By Nancy L. Stein; Bennett Leventhal et al. | Go to book overview

or use confrontation. This hypothesis receives some support from studies that show that depressed people tend to use more coping strategies, regardless of type, than nondepressed people (e.g., Coyne et al, 1981; Folkman & Lazarus, 1986). The sequence of coping activity in such cases can generate a volatile and complex emotional response.


CONCLUDING COMMENTS

Two principles need to be emphasized. The first is that every encounter, even the most simple, is usually complex and contains multiple facets and implications for well-being that either exist side by side or arise sequentially. This is why there can be more than one emotion in any encounter, and sometimes contradictory ones, as has been seen in younger children who can feel both happy and sad about what has transpired ( Harris, 1985; Terwogt, Schene, & Harris, 1985) and in students preparing for exams ( Folkman & Lazarus, 1985). To understand the emotion process, therefore, each emotion must be linked analytically to the cognitive appraisal that influences it.

The second principle concerns the temporal and unfolding quality of emotion and coping processes. Social scientists, especially those dealing with disaster, have long recognized that an encounter involving harm or benefit often has three or more stages--anticipation, confrontation, and postconfrontation. Coping in an anticipatory context offers an important opportunity to influence what happens at the point of confrontation by preventing or ameliorating a harm or facilitating a benefit. After confrontation, coping must be aimed at managing the consequences and their implications for the future. Emotions constantly shift through- out this process according to the changing status of the person-environment relationship. It is surprising that to date so little systematic attention has been given to the temporal aspects of the emotion process and to the place of coping within it.

Together, these two principles highlight the complex and dynamic nature of emotions and coping in social encounters and point the way for us to investigate empirically the precise mechanisms through which coping mediates the emotional response. Once their importance in emotion and adaptation is realized, the limitations of static, cross-sectional research designs and theoretical models reminiscent of stimulus-response formulations of the recent past become unacceptable, and systems analyses of the emotion process and research designs that permit intraindividual analysis of the temporal flow of many person and environment variables become mandatory.


REFERENCES

Alpert R., & Haber R. N. ( 1960). "Anxiety in academic achievement situations". Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 61, 207-215.

-329-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Psychological and Biological Approaches to Emotion
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 454

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.