Psychological and Biological Approaches to Emotion

By Nancy L. Stein; Bennett Leventhal et al. | Go to book overview

of developing principles of normal psychological functioning, clinical psychologists rarely have pursued this line of inquiry. Clinical investigators typically conduct research on depression simply to understand this disorder. Such research also can illuminate the functions of pervasive optimistic biases in normal cognition. These biases may be highly robust and have adaptive and/or evolutionary significance (e.g., Abramson & Alloy, 1981; Alloy & Abramson, 1979; Freud, 1917/ 1957; Greenwald, 1980; Martin, Abramson, & Alloy, 1984; Tiger, 1979).


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Preparation of this chapter was supported by a grant from the MacArthur Foundation, a Romnes Fellowship from the University of Wisconsin, and a grant from the University Research Institute at the University of Texas-Austin. We thank Tony Ahrens, Ben Dykman, Dan Romer, Rich Spritz, Carmelo Vasquez, and the members of our research groups for very helpful comments on previous versions of this article.


REFERENCES

Abramson L. Y., & Alloy L. B. ( 1981). "Depression, nondepression, and cognitive illusions: A reply to Schwartz." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, 436-447.

Abramson L. Y., Alloy L. B., & Metalsky G. I. ( 1988a). The cognitive diathesis-stress theories of depression: Toward an adequate evaluation of the theories' validities. In L. B. Alloy (Ed.), Cognitive processes in depression. New York: Guilford.

Abramson L. Y., Garber J., Edwards N. B., & Seligman M. E. P. ( 1978). "Expectancy changes in depression and schizophrenia." Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49-74.

Abramson L. Y., Metalsky G. I., & Alloy L. B. ( 1989). "Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression." Psychological Review, 96, 358-372.

Abramson L. Y., Metalsky G. I., & Alloy L. B. ( 1988b). The hopelessness theory of depression: Does the research test the theory? In L. Y. Abramson (Ed.), Social cognition and clinical psychology: A synthesis. New York: Guilford.

Abramson L. Y., Seligman M. E. P., & Teasdale J. ( 1978). "Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation." Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49-74.

Alloy L. B. ( 1982). "The role of perceptions and attributions for response-outcome noncontingency in learned helplessness: A commentary and discussion." Journal of Personality, 50, 443-479.

Alloy L. B., & Abramson L. Y. ( 1979). "Judgment of contingency in depressed and nondepressed students: Sadder but wiser?" Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108, 441-485.

Alloy L. B., & Abramson L. Y. ( 1988). Depressive realism: Four theoretical perspectives. In L. B. Alloy (Ed.), Cognitive processes in depression. New York: Guilford.

Alloy L. B., & Ahrens A. ( 1987). "Depression and pessimism for the future: Biased use of statistically relevant information in predictions for self versus others." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 366-378.

Alloy L. B., Clements C., & Kolden G. ( 1985). The cognitive diathesis-stress theories of depression: Therapeutic implications. In S. Reiss & R. Bootzin (Eds.), Theoretical issues in behavior therapy. New York: Academic Press.

Alloy L. B., Hartlage S., & Abramson L. Y. ( 1988). Testing the cognitive diathesis-stress theories of depression: Issues of research design, conceptualization, and assessment. In L. B. Alloy (Ed.), Cognitive processes in depression. New York: Guilford.

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