1972; Hooley, 1986; Miklowitz, Goldstein, Neuchterlein, Snyder, & Mintz, 1988). Parents and spouses are rated as having either high or low levels of expressed emotion on the basis of scores measuring expressions of criticism, hostility, and overinvolvement toward the patients. Discharged psychiatric patients living at home with relatives with high levels of expressed emotion display significantly higher rates of relapse than patients residing with relatives with low levels. This finding further underscores the importance of the affective environment in the course of psychopathological disturbances. Finally, studies that address the relation between emotion and other ontogenetic systems (e.g., the "self-system" and peer relations), both concurrently and over-time, merit investigations with normal and pathological groups as well.
The research reported in this chapter was supported by grants from the W. T. Grant Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Network on Early Childhood, the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation (12-127), the National Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (90-C-1929), the National Institute of Mental Health (R01-MH37960), and the Spencer Foundation to author Cicchetti . We would like to express our thanks to Victoria Gill for typing this manuscript.
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