Psychological and Biological Approaches to Emotion

By Nancy L. Stein; Bennett Leventhal et al. | Go to book overview

1972; Hooley, 1986; Miklowitz, Goldstein, Neuchterlein, Snyder, & Mintz, 1988). Parents and spouses are rated as having either high or low levels of expressed emotion on the basis of scores measuring expressions of criticism, hostility, and overinvolvement toward the patients. Discharged psychiatric patients living at home with relatives with high levels of expressed emotion display significantly higher rates of relapse than patients residing with relatives with low levels. This finding further underscores the importance of the affective environment in the course of psychopathological disturbances. Finally, studies that address the relation between emotion and other ontogenetic systems (e.g., the "self-system" and peer relations), both concurrently and over-time, merit investigations with normal and pathological groups as well.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The research reported in this chapter was supported by grants from the W. T. Grant Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Network on Early Childhood, the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation (12-127), the National Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (90-C-1929), the National Institute of Mental Health (R01-MH37960), and the Spencer Foundation to author Cicchetti . We would like to express our thanks to Victoria Gill for typing this manuscript.


REFERENCES

Aber J. L., & Cicchetti D. ( 1984). "Socioemotional development in maltreated children: An empirical and theoretical analysis". In H. Fitzgerald, B. Lester, & M. Yogman (Eds.), Theory and research in behavioral pediatrics, (Vol. 11). New York: Plenum Press.

Ainsworth M. D. S., Blehar M. C., Waters E. and Wall S. ( 1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Akiskal H. S., & McKinney W. T., Jr. ( 1975). "Overview of recent research in depression: Integration of ten conceptual models into a comprehensive clinical frame". Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 285-305.

American Psychiatric Association ( 1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 3rd ed. rev.). Washington, DC, APA.

Arieti S. ( 1955/ 1974). The interpretation of schizophrenia. New York: Plenum Press.

Axelrod J. ( 1974). "Neurotransmitters". Scientific American, 230, 58-71.

Bayley N. ( 1969). Bayley scales of infant development. New York: Psychological Corporation.

Beck A. T. ( 1967). Depression: Causes and treatment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Becker J. ( 1977). Affective disorders. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.

Beeghly M., & Cicchetti D. ( 1987). "An organizational approach to symbolic development in children with Down syndrome". In D. Cicchetti & M. Beeghly (Eds.), Atypical symbolic development. San Francisco: Jossey--Bass.

Bemporad J., Smith H., Hanson G., & Cicchetti D. ( 1982). "Borderline syndromes of childhood: Criteria for diagnosis". American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 596-602.

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