European royal family, former imperial house of Austria-Hungary. A Habsburg, Rudolf I, became king of Germany in 1273 and began the family's control of Austria and Styria. They acquired a series of lands and titles, including that of Holy Roman Emperor which they held during 1273-91, 1298-1308, 1438-1740, and 1745-1806. The Habsburgs reached the zenith of their power under the emperor Charles V ( 1519-1556) who divided his lands, creating an Austrian Habsburg line (which ruled until 1918) and a Spanish line (which ruled to 1700).
The name comes from the family castle in Aargau, Switzerland.
English composer. He was scholar of Eton, 1469-72, and of King's College, Cambridge from 1472. He was a fellow at Cambridge, 1475-93, and provost from 1509 until his death. A Salve Regina by him is in the Eton Choirbook.
English geographer whose chief work is The Principal Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation ( 1598-1600). He was assisted by Sir Walter Raleigh.
He lectured on cartography at Oxford, became geographical adviser to the East India Company, and was an original member of the Virginia Company.
English lawyer and chronicler who wrote The Union of the Noble and Illustre Families of Lancaster and York. It chronicles the success of the Tudor dynasty supposedly bringing the War of the Roses to an end. A first edition appeared in 1542, but the second edition, published posthumously in 1548, is considered the standard version. The book was widely used by other historians, notably Raphael Holinshed, and was also used by Shakespeare as a source for his history plays.
Commonly called Hall's Chronicle it was continued after his death by Richard Grafton, but because of its Protestant bias, it was prohibited during the reign of Mary I.
Born in London, Hall was educated at Eton and Cambridge. In 1532 he was appointed common serjeant (a position in the legal system) and from 1533-40 was a reader at Grey's Inn in London. In later years he was a judge of the sheriffs court. He became a member of parliament for Bridgnorth in Shropshire in 1542 and was a commissioner to the inquiry into transgressions against the Six Articles ( 1539).
Radiance encircling the heads of saints and holy persons in art. It is also called an aureole, especially when surrounding the whole figure.
English composer. He was master of the choristers at Worcester Priory ( 1484-1522). He is represented in the Eton Choirbook.
A conference of the Anglican Church held at Hampton Court Palace near London in 1604. Presided over by King James I, its aim was to consider the objections Puritans had raised to certain Anglican rites, ceremonies, and prayers. Few concessions were made to Puritan demands for change, but the Conference did lead to a major new translation of the Bible, the Authorized Version of 1611.
The Puritan demands were embodied in the Millenary Petition of 1603 (so called because it had a thousand supporters in clergy). John Rainolds was the leading spokesman for the Puritans, and the archbishop of Canterbury, Richard Bancroft ( 1544- 1610), led the bishops' side.