Flemish singer and composer. He was attached to San Pietro Cathedral at Mantua ( 1527-58), and wrote Masses, Magnificats, motets, psalms, hymns, and other pieces.
Style in the arts, particularly in architecture and furniture, during the reign of James I ( 1603-25) in England. Following the general lines of Elizabethan design, but using Classical features with greater complexity and with more profuse ornamentation, it adopted many motifs from contemporary Italian design.
A sudden change to full-blown Palladin architecture occurred early in the 17th century, when Inigo Jones appeared upon the scene and designed the Queen's House at Greenwich ( 1617-35), and the Banqueting House in Whitehall ( 1619-22).
Italian painter. The son of Francesco del Fiore, Jacobello was a pupil of Gentile da Fabriano and adopted a similar style when he began painting in 1394. His earliest surviving work is the Madonna della Misericordia ( 1407). Other works include the Lion of St Mark ( 1415) (Palazzo Ducale, Venice) and the Coronation of the Virgin ( 1438), a copy of the well-known painting by Gauriento. He was president of the guild of painters in Venice ( 1415-36).
King of Scotland from 1488. He came to the throne after his followers murdered his father, James III, at Sauchieburn. His reign was internally peaceful, but he allied himself with France against England, invaded in 1513, and was defeated and killed at the Battle of Flodden. James IV was a patron of poets and architects as well as a military leader.
In 1503 he married Margaret Tudor ( 1489-1541, daughter of Henry VII), which eventually led to his descendants succeeding to the English crown. He was succeeded by his son James V.
King of Scotland from 1513, who assumed power in 1528. During the long period of his minority, he was caught in a struggle between pro-French and pro- English factions. When he assumed power, he allied himself with France and upheld Catholicism against the Protestants. Following an attack on Scottish territory by Henry VIII's forces, he was defeated near the border at Solway Moss in 1542.
Son of James IV and Margaret Tudor, he succeeded his father at the age of one year. His first wife, Madeline, daughter of King Francis I of France, died in 1537; the following year he married Mary of Guise. Their daughter, Mary Queen of Scots, succeeded him.
King of England from 1603 and Scotland (as James VI) from 1567. The son of Mary Queen of Scots and her second husband, Lord Darnley, he succeeded to the Scottish throne on the enforced abdication of his mother and assumed power in 1583. He established a strong centralized authority, and in 1589 married Anne of Denmark ( 1574-1619).
As successor to Elizabeth I in England, he alienated the Puritans by his High Church views and Parliament by his assertion of divine right, and was generally unpopular because of his favourites, such as Buckingham, and his schemes for an alliance with Spain. He was succeeded by his son Charles I.
As king of Scotland, he curbed the power of the nobility, although his attempts to limit the authority of the Kirk (Church of Scotland) were less successful.
Upon his accession to the English throne on the death of Elizabeth I, James acted mainly upon the advice of Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, but on the latter's death all restraint vanished.
His religious policy consisted of asserting the supreme authority of the crown and suppressing both Puritans and Catholics who objected. The prepara-