Flemish composer. His mostly polyphonic sacred music (which in style predates that of Josquin Desprez) centred on the Mass. He was innovative, developing borrowed material, and using a secular fixed cantus firmus in his Missa super Maria zart. He also wrote motets and secular works. He worked as a Kapellmeister in Utrecht, Antwerp, and Bruges. He died of the plague. He was born at Bergen-op-Zoom and studied at Louvain University. He directed the singers at Utrecht ( 1476-78), Bergen-op-Zoom ( 1479-84), then at Cambrai, at Bruges in 1486 and 1490, and elsewhere in the Low Countries. He was obliged to resign in 1500, and after a spell at Antwerp ( 1501-02) went to Italy for his health. He had already spent six months at the ducal court of Ferrara in 1487-88 and returned there in 1504 as head of Ercole d'Este's choir, only to die of plague the following year.
Twenty-seven Masses, including Fortuna Desperata, Maria zart, and Sub Tuum Praesidium; motets, chansons.
Painting technique using ground pigments mixed with oil, usually linseed. The technique is generally held to originate in the Netherlands, possibly in the workshop of Jan van Eyck. Although Antonello da Messina is generally credited with importing it into Italy, it was already known to Cennino Cennini.
The advantage of oil painting over tempera or fresco is that it dries slowly, giving the artist greater flexibility in executing a composition. It is also possible to make corrections once oil paint has dried by adding additional layers of paint.
technique The process of grinding pigments to which oil was added was a time-consuming process generally given to junior members in an artist's workshop to carry out. Oil paint is then applied to a prepared panel, canvas, paper, or mural surface. The artist may paint multiple layers of oils to create greater luminosity than can be achieved with Otempera or Ofresco. The finished oil painting was generally covered with a thin layer of varnish to protect the colours from damage.
Flemish composer of church music. His works include the antiphon Alma Redemptoris Mater and the richly contrapuntal Missa Prolationum/Prolation Mass, employing complex canonic imitation in multiple parts at different levels. He was court composer to Charles VII, Louis XI, and Charles VIII of France.
He was a chorister at Antwerp Cathedral until 1444, was in the service of Charles, Duke of Bourbon at Moulins ( 1446-48), and in the service of the French court from about 1452, where he became the first maitre de chapelle. Louis XI appointed him treasurer of Saint-Martin at Tours, where he lived during the latter part of his life, though he visited Spain in 1469.
Ten Masses, including Ecce Ancilla Domini, L'homme armé, and Mi-mi; motets; French chansons.
Dutch politician, a leading figure in the Netherlands' struggle for independence from Spain. He helped William the Silent negotiate the Union of Utrecht in 1579.
As leader of the Republican party he opposed the war policy of stadholder (magistrate) Maurice of Orange and negotiated a 12-year truce with Spain in 1609. His support of the Remonstrants (Arminians) in the religious strife against Maurice and the Gomarists (Calvinists) effected his downfall and he was arrested and executed.
English miniaturist. A Huguenot refugee, he studied under Nicholas Hilliard but a formative influence