French satirist, monk, and physician. His name has become synonymous with bawdy humour. He was educated in the humanist tradition and was the author of satirical allegories, including a cycle known as Gargantua and Pantagruel which included La Vie estimable du grand Gargantua, pare de Pantagruel/ The Inestimable Life of the Great Gargantua, Father of Pantagruel, the first to be written, but published in 1534, two years after Les Horribles et Épouvantables Faits et prouesses du très renommé Pantagruel/The Horrible and Dreadful Deeds and Prowess of the Very Renowned Pantagruel ( 1532).
Italian painter. He was active in Florence, and probably the pupil of Filippino Lippi, whom he is said to have assisted in the frescoes of Sta Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.
Bolognese engraver, active in Rome. He engraved many works by Raphael Sanzio and his pupils, becoming the first and perhaps the most eminent of reproductive engravers. His works were important in spreading Raphael's style throughout Europe, and in disseminating copies of Albrecht Dürer's work throughout Italy.
He trained and worked in Bologna as a goldsmith and engraver under Francesco Francia. He moved to Rome in 1510 where he worked for Raphael. He remained in Rome until the Sack in 1527. As well as copies of Raphael's works, his engravings included ones of Giulio Romano's art, of Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper, and of Classical statues.
English adventurer, writer, and courtier to Queen Elizabeth I. He organized expeditions to colonize North America 1584-87, all unsuccessful, and made exploratory voyages to South America 1595 and 1616. His aggressive actions against Spanish interests, including attacks on Spanish ports, brought him into conflict with the pacific James I. He was imprisoned for treason 1603-16 and executed on his return from an unsuccessful final expedition to South America. He is traditionally credited with introducing the potato to Europe and popularizing the use of tobacco.
Born in Devon, England, Raleigh became a confidant of Queen Elizabeth I and was knighted in 1584. He led a gold-seeking expedition to the Orinoco River in South America 1595 (described in his Discoverie of Guiana 1596).
After James I's accession to the English throne 1603, Raleigh was condemned to death on a charge of conspiracy, but was reprieved and imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he wrote his unfinished History of the World. Released in 1616 to lead a second expedition to the Orinoco, which failed disastrously, he was beheaded on his return under the charges of his former sentence.
Spanish theorist and composer. He wrote a theoretical work in which he devised a way of tuning the monochord and wrote church music. After lecturing at Salamanca he went to Italy, living at Bologna 1480-82 and later in Rome.
French philosopher and logician. He sought to improve the syllogistic logic of Greek philosopher Aristotle with the rhetoric of Roman orator Cicero. In the 17th century, Ramism was a serious rival to Aristotelian logic in Britain, New England, and Germany.
Aristotelian logic had already been criticized by Lorenzo Valla. Francis I suppressed Ramus's works 1544, but Henry II lifted the ban 1547. From 1551,