I N UNDERTAKING THIS VOLUME, I have been blessed by assistance, support, and encouragement from friends and colleagues who have earned much more gratitude than I can begin to express. Most of all, I am indebted to my close friend, Judge Frank J. Williams of Hope Valley, Rhode Island, who again made available to me the vast resources of his incomparable Lincoln and Civil War library. More than once, in response to some urgent call for help, he traveled uncomplaining, to his Hope Valley office after a long day in court at Providence, to search through his archives and gather material to air-ship to me the following day at his own expense. Such manifestations of friendship truly go beyond the call. Reels of microfilm, copies of documents, passages from books, photocopies from the Official Records of the Rebellion, all flowed to New York as if on a conveyor belt. To say that this book could not have been written without Frank Williams's help would be a gross understatement. All I can do is thank him, again and always, for his support, generosity, patience, and enthusiasm.
Along the path from conception to publication, a number of curators, archivists, and librarians helped me track down documents, and then obligingly granted permission for their publication here. I am grateful in particular to Gerald Prokopowicz, historian of the Lincoln Museum in Fort Wayne, and his research assistant, James E. Eber; Michael Musick and Dee Ann Blanton at the Military Reference Branch of the National Archives; William J. Walsh at the Archives' Textual Reference Branch and Budge Weidman at its Civil War Conservation Corps; Illinois State Historian Thomas E Schwartz and Kim Bauer, curator of the Lincoln Collection at the Illinois State Historical Library; Don McCue of the Lincoln Shrine in Redlands, California; and Steve Nielsen, Jean H. Brookins, and Dallas R. Lindgren of the Minnesota Historical Society.
At the Library of Congress, James R. Gilreath offered the resources of his Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Civil War Spe