The Nature of Intelligence and Intelligent Systems
A different, more abstract, and inclusive general unified theory of intelligence can be formulated on the basis of the logic of implication. This fundamental theorem of intelligence would hold that the logic of implication (if p, then q) subsumes both the formal structure of human reasoning and problem solving and the formal structure of artificial intelligence. The logic of implication is foundational to mathematical and scientific reasoning and to the reasoning of everyday behavior ( Wagman, 1978, 1984, 1993) and is foundational to programming logic and knowledge representation formalisms in artificial intelligence systems ( Wagman, 1980, 1988, 1991a, 1991b).
Mathematics summarizes scientific research results, but, more significantly, mathematics formulates general bodies of scientific theory.
Mathematics is the foundation of all exact knowledge of natural phenomena ( Hilbert, quoted in Kline, 1985, p. vi).