It is a truism that the pathways of experience lead from being an apprentice to being a master. In recent decades, cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have attempted to define this transition from novice to expert. Elio and Scharf ( 1990) developed EUREKA, a computer model of the changes in strategy approach and knowledge organization that take place as the status of novice gives way to the attainment of mastery.
The cognitive theory of psychological knowledge schemata provides the general logic for EUREKA.
In the model described below, we propose that interrelated prototypes or schemas emerge with experience. These structures functionally organize related domain-specific expectations, inferences, and methods for solving problems. Furthermore, we assume that the shift in problem-solving strategy is a by- product of the changing content and interassociation of these schemas [ Elio and Scharf, 1990, p. 582].
In EUREKA, there is provision for reclassification, modification, and retrieval of strategic knowledge. EUREKA's knowledge can evolve as it experiences and solves physics problems. Knowledge develops in the