the notion of the emergence of a new younger Black voter who responds differently and more unpredictably.
There is a growing African American voter population exposed to a steady increase in media outlets and struggling to understand complex social and political issues. Common among them is race. Within the group are distinctions based on class, age, and gender. This particular combination of factors creates a need for carefully targeted, concise, and direct messages designed to reach African Americans with messages to which they feel compelled to respond.
Future research should include SAM measurements both cross-culturally among various segments of voters and within ethnic groups. As a result of this preliminary study, the researchers are encouraged that SAM can be a unique tool to reveal the subtle differences in emotional responses, which alluded to previous studies that attempted to differentiate various forms of negative messages. Future research using SAM also should be applied to different levels of local, state, and federal campaigns.
More tests are needed. The potential for measuring other media and forms of political communication needs to be examined. The role of SAM and AdSAM® in political advertising research has yet to be determined fully. If the current study is an indication, SAM may assist in sorting out the complexities and often contradictory reactions to various forms of political advertising and voters' emotional responses to them.
All co-authors contributed equally to this research. We wish to thank Jim Geason for his assistance with this project.