Basic and Applied Memory Research: Practical Applications - Vol. 2

By Douglas J. Herrmann; Cathy McEvoy et al. | Go to book overview

but not wine professionals. Wine professionals also showed markedly greater verbal wine knowledge, which suggests that their relative resistance to verbal overshadowing was due to their superior wine vocabulary.2

There appear to be quite a few variables that can influence how verbalization influences performances. The complexity of factors involved in mediating verbal overshadowing effects constrains our ability to offer hard and fast advice about how this research should be applied in real-world contexts that typically involve many uncontrolled variables. Thus, more research will be needed before we can move this research endeavor from the potentially applicable to the truly applied (cf. Herrmann, in press). Nevertheless, we are well on the way toward an understanding of the general principles involved in determining when verbalization is likely to be harmful, helpful, or of no consequence.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The research reported in this chapter was supported by a grant to the first author from the National Institute of Mental Health and by grant BNS-8908030 to the third author from the National Science Foundation. We thank Stephen Fiore for helpful comments on earlier drafts of this chapter.


REFERENCES

Bartlett, J. C., & Searcy, J. ( 1993). Inversion and configuration of faces. Cognitive Psychology, 25, 281-316.

Berry, D. C. ( 1984). Implicit and explicit knowledge in the control of complex systems. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.

Brandimonte, M. A., Schooler, J. W., & Gabbino, P. ( 1995). Preventing verbal overshadowing through visual retrieval cues. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Carey, S., & Diamond, R. ( 1977). From piecemeal to configurational representation of faces. Science, 195, 312-314.

Charney, D. H., & Reder, L. M. ( 1986). Designing tutorials for computer users: Effects of the form and spacing of practice on skill learning. Human Computer Interaction, 2, 297-317.

____________________
2
Interestingly, wine novices (individuals who drank wine less than once a month) also showed no effect of verbalization. Comparison of the effects of verbalization on the performance of wine novices and nonprofessional wine drinkers thus replicates, in principle, Fallshore and Schooler ( 1994) finding that verbalization impairs face recognition exclusively within domains where subjects possess a substantial degree of perceptual expertise (i.e., verbalization disrupts memory for same-race but not other-race faces). This interaction is also consistent with Ryan and Schooler ( 1995) finding that verbalization impaired subjects with high perceptual abilities but not low perceptual abilities. Presumably in all three cases this interaction occurs because the effects of verbalization are limited to those domains in which subjects' perceptual memories exceed what they are able to verbalize about their memories.

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