Basic and Applied Memory Research: Practical Applications - Vol. 2

By Douglas J. Herrmann; Cathy McEvoy et al. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER NINE Practice Effects in Memory: Data, Theory, and Unanswered Questions

David G. Payne Binghamton University

Michael J. Wenger Indiana University

This chapter is concerned with the manner in which practicing memory tasks influences subsequent acquisition and retention. This is admittedly a very broad topic, and most if not all of the sessions at the Third Practical Aspects of Memory Conference had something to say about memory practice effects. What differentiates our review is that we are interested in the effects of memory practice per se, rather than more specific topics such as strategy use or the effectiveness of classical mnemonics. Here we review work from three domains: skilled memory, the effects of encoding and retrieval practice, and some recent developments concerning implicit memory and implicit learning (see Schacter, 1987; Seger, 1994, for reviews).


EXTENDED MEMORY PRACTICE: TBE DEVELOPMENT OF SKILLED MEMORY

Subjects in expert memory studies have devoted hundreds of hours to the memory tasks of interest, either as a result of participating in a laboratory study (e.g., Ericsson, Chase, & Faloon, 1980; Wenger & Payne, 1993, 1995) or through repeatedly performing the memory task in their everyday activities (e.g., Deakin & Allard, 1991; Ericsson & Polson, 1988a, 1988b; Stevens, 1993). Knowledge obtained from these individuals is certainly relevant to our understanding of memory practice effects, and hence in this section we will overview important and representative work examining expert memory performance.

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