well do they meet the criteria outlined earlier?
The second direction for research that is clearly implied by these propositions is a more careful attention to the distinctions between expertise and success. Since no one can become an expert in all the domains in which he needs to adequately solve problems, what are the characteristics of good problem solvers who are no highly experienced professionals (experts)? A correlate of this issue is the nature of expertise. A recent study that compared genetic counselors and genetics faculty ( Smith, 1988) suggests that some of our understanding of expertise is perhaps applicable only to educators in the domain of interest. Similar studies of other noneducator experts should be conducted.
A third direction for future research is a greater emphasis on the issues of the development and teaching of problem-solving skills. The absence of propositions relating to these issues from the statements above is conspicuous.
This chapter is based in part on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. MDR 8609356.
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