Toward a Unified Theory of Problem Solving: Views from the Content Domains

By Mike U. Smith | Go to book overview

knowledge base as adequate. This implies that misconceptions will be long-lasting and difficult to eradicate. If it is backward, then the misconceptions may simply be a means to an end. In this case, these incorrect ideas might best be viewed as transient hypotheses which are later either refuted or modified in the light of experience to form the kernel of a more adequate explanation. With intermediates, the reason for errors does not lie with serious misconceptions as much as with an excessive use of irrelevant information. Once again, the fundamental issue may lie in how this information is being used. The use of forward reasoning may indicate a dogmatic reliance on existing knowledge. Backward reasoning may indicate that the subject is attempting to learn how to separate out the relevant from the irrelevant.

These implications suggest that an instructional emphasis on the importance of correct problem solving and the harmfulness of misconceptions may not be productive. The important part of learning may consist in testing and pondering the adequacy of one's explanations rather than achieving accurately implemented solution procedures. If this is so, then a greater instructional emphasis on explanation rather than problem solving might prove profitable. The "problembased learning" we mentioned at the beginning of this paper might at least be supplemented by "explanation-based learning."


REFERENCES

Charness, N. ( 1989). "Expertise in chess and bridge". In D. Klahr & K. Kotovsky (Eds.), Complex information processing: The impact of Herbert A. Simon (pp. 183-208). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Chase, W. G., & Simon, H. A. ( 1973). "Perception in chess". Cognitive Psychology, 1, 55-81.

deGroot, A. D. ( 1965). Thought and choice in chess. The Hague: Mouton.

Elstein, A. S., Shulman, L. S., & Sprafka, S. A. ( 1978). Medical problem solving: An analysis of clinical reasoning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ericsson, A., & Simon, H. A. ( 1984). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Frederiksen, C. H. ( 1975). "Representing logical and semantic structure of knowledge acquired from discourse". Cognitive Psychology, 7, 371-458.

Frederiksen, C. H. ( 1981). "Inferences in preschool children's conversations: A cognitive perspective". In J. Green & C. Wallat (Eds.), Ethnography and language in educational settings. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Greeno, J. G., & Simon, H. A. ( 1988). "Problem solving and reasoning". In R. C. Atkinson, R. Hernstein, G. Lindsey, & R. D. Luce (Eds.), Steven's handbook of experimental psychology. New York: Wiley.

Groen, G. J., & Kieran, C. ( 1982). "In search of Piagetian mathematics". In H. Ginsburg (Ed.), The development of mathematical thinking (pp. 351-374). .: Academic.

Grn, G. J., & Patel, V. L. ( 1988). "The relationship between comprehension and reasoning in medical expertise". In M. Chi, R. Glaser & M. Farr (Eds.), The nature of expertise (pp. 287-310). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

-43-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Toward a Unified Theory of Problem Solving: Views from the Content Domains
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents *
  • Preface *
  • 1 - A View from Biology 1
  • Acknowledgment 17
  • References 17
  • 2 - A View from Chemistry 21
  • References 32
  • 3 - A View from Medicine 35
  • References 43
  • 4 - A View from Programming 45
  • Acknowledgements 63
  • References 63
  • 5 - A View of Mathematical Problem Solving in School 69
  • Acknowledgements 95
  • References 95
  • 6 - A View from Physics 99
  • References 113
  • 7 - A View from Trouble-Shooting 115
  • References 148
  • Author Index 155
  • Subject Index 161
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 164

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.