ability to operate in areas where one has little experience. The wise expert recognizes that this lack of experience imposes a major handicap, but there is a big difference between having the ability to operate as an expert on the one hand and possessing a kind of reflective knowledge of one's repertoire of strategies on the other. In the latter case, it is possible to deliberately apply the strategies to novel situations, keeping in mind that without extensive experience one's judgment will be hampered. Creative leaps, however, do not require this kind of judgment, and may in fact be hindered by it. There are examples in the history of science (such as Einstein's original work leading to special relativity) where great creative advances were made even though (or perhaps because) the scientist did not "know too much" in the domain.
Well short of work at the creative level of Einstein's work, one can still ask whether the problem-solving skills of expert physicists are potentially useful in other domains. One way to answer this question is to point to the physicists who have made great contributions in other fields. A second question is whether some of the skills of physicists can usefully be taught to novices (in physics and in other fields) to help these novices become good problem solvers. Based on the evidence from the examples described in this chapter, we would answer "yes," with the proviso that such teaching must be accompanied by training in systematic selfreflection on one's thinking and problem solving. We have offered several generauable abilities, along with examples of ways to teach them. We hope these will point a way toward the construction of a unified theory.
Brown, D., & Clement, J. ( 1987, April). Overcoming misconceptions in mechanics: a comparison of two example-based teaching strategies. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Washington, DC.
Champagne, A., Gunstone, R., & Klopfer, L. ( 1983, May). A perspective on the differences between expert and novice performance in solving physics problems. Paper presented at the meeting of the Australian Science Education Research Association, Sydney, Australia.
Clement, J. ( 1987). "Overcoming students' misconceptions in physics: The role of anchoring intuitions and analogical validity". Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Misconceptions and Educational Strategies in Science and Mathematics, (Vol. 3, pp. 84-97). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.
Clement, J. (in press). "Observed methods for generating analogies in scientific problem solving". Cognitive Science.
Leyden, M. G. ( 1984). "You graduate more criminals than scientists". The Science Teacher, 51( 3), 26-30.
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